Lecture 2: Deduction, Induction, Validity, Soundness. Premises are supposed to provide reason to believe conclusions. Under what circumstances do premises succeed in doing this? How do we distinguish good from bad arguments?.
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Premises are supposed to provide reason to believe conclusions.
An argument is deductive if and only if its premises are intended to provide “an inescapable absolutely foolproof guarantee of the truth” (Rescher 1964, 57) of the conclusion.
The shirt is blue all over.
∴ The shirt is not red all over.
Example inductive argument:
The postman has always come by at 2pm before.
∵ The postman will come by at 2pm today.
The symbol ‘∵’ signals an inductive inference.
The plaque on the leaning tower of Pisa says that Galileo performed experiments there.
Therefore, Galileo did indeed perform experiments there.
There were pry marks around the lock on the rear door.
There were deposits of mud near the rear threshold.
Therefore, the burglar entered through the rear door.
If global warming is not arrested, then hurricanes will become more intense.
Global warming will not be arrested.
Therefore, hurricanes will become more intense.
A deductive argument is valid if and only if its premises succeed in providing incontrovertible reason to believe the conclusion.
A deductive argument is invalid if and only if it is not valid.
If an argument is invalid, then there is a conceivable scenario in which the premises are all true and the conclusion is false.
If there is no such scenario, then the argument is valid.
If Socrates was a philosopher, then he wasn’t a historian.
Socrates wasn’t a historian.
∴ Socrates was a philosopher.
All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
∴ Socrates is mortal.
If Col. Mustard is the murderer, then the murder weapon is the wrench.
The murder weapon is not the wrench.
∴ Col. Mustard is not the murderer.
Every plant has nine toes.
President Obama is a plant.
∴ President Obama has nine toes.