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CARE OF PATIENT WITH CHEST INJURIES PowerPoint Presentation
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CARE OF PATIENT WITH CHEST INJURIES

CARE OF PATIENT WITH CHEST INJURIES

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CARE OF PATIENT WITH CHEST INJURIES

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  1. CARE OF PATIENT WITH CHEST INJURIES

  2. Chest cavity Soft tissues • Lungs • Heart • Great vessels • diaphragm • oesophagus

  3. Bony areas • Ribs • Sternum • Clavicle • Tracheo broncheal tree

  4. Classification Blunt injuries Penetrating injuries

  5. Etiology • Motor vehicle accidents • Fall from height • Violence • Iatrogenic

  6. Mechanisms involved • Acceleration force • Deceleration force • Transmission of blunt internal force to force to structures • Direct trauma • Compression

  7. Chest trauma • Chest wall injuries • Sternal fractures • Flail chest • Pulmonary and pleural injuries • Traumatic asphyxia • Tracheo bronchial injuries • Pneumothorax • Hemothorax • Mediastinal injuries • cardiac injuries • Great vessel injuries • Diaphragmatic injuries • Oesophageal injuries

  8. Pulmonary injuries Pneumothorax • Collection of air in the space between the parietal and visceral pleura

  9. Tension pneumothorax An expanding collection of intra pleural air without communication with external environment • Clinical manifestations • Distended neck veins • Hypotension/hypoperfusion • Absent breath sounds on affected side • Tracheal deviation to contra lateral side

  10. Management • Immediate needle aspiration • 14 gauge IV needle of length more than 4.5 cm and catheter into pleural space through chest wall in MCL at second intercostal space(temporary measure) • Large bore chest tube thoracostomy

  11. Open pneumothorax (sucking chest wound) A communication between the pleural space and surrounding atmospheric pressure Respiration is the function of negative pressure inside the thoracic cavity , positive atmospheric pressure and elastic recoil of lungs

  12. Pneumothorax • Clinical manifestations • Air entry and breath sounds diminished in the affected side • Impaired chest wall motion

  13. Pathophysiology Negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration Air leak into the pleural cavity Increased intra thoracic pressure Reduced vital capacity and venous return

  14. Pneumothorax • Diagnosis • Chest radiography(double pleural markings) • Ultrasound • Management • Cover the wound with a three sided dressing • Air can escape during expiration but do not enter during inspiration(one way valve) • Chest tube insertion

  15. Pneumothorax

  16. Open pneumothorax 3-side dressing Asherman chest seal

  17. Massive hemothorax Accumulation of at least 1500 ml or two thirds of the available hemithorax in an adult

  18. Hemothorax • Life threatening by three mechanisms • Acute hypovolemia causing decreased preload • Collapsed lung promoting hypoxia • Hemothorax compressing venacava • impairing preload

  19. Hemothorax • Clinical manifestations Abnormal vital signs Dullness to percussion Diminished breath sounds • Diagnosis Plain chest radiography completely opacifiedhemithorax Ultrasonography-fluid between chest wall and lung

  20. Management • Chest tube insertion Care of chest tube • Position-last hole 2.5-5 cm inside chest wall • Suction chamber with 20-30 cm of water • Never clamp the tubes • Bottle at 1-2 ft lower than patient’s chest • Left in place for 24 hrs after leak has stopped

  21. Flail chest • Free floating lung segment that is no longer connected to the rest of the thorax • Cause • Segmental rib fractures in two or more locations of the same rib of three or more adjacent ribs

  22. Flail chest • Clinical manifestations • Paradoxical inward movement of the involved portion of the chest wall during inspiration and outward movement during expiration

  23. Pathophysiology-flail chest Decreased ventilatory efficiency Increased work of breathing Hypoxemia Sudden respiratory arrest

  24. Management-Flail chest • Analgesics • Ventilator support • stabilization

  25. Diaphragmatic injury • Often unnoticed if not very big defect • Causes referred shoulder pain • Respiratory distress (herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax) Diagnosis • Decreased breath sounds • Auscultation of bowel sounds in the chest • Tension viscero thorax • Bowel obstruction and strangulation

  26. Management- Repair of diaphragm

  27. Cardiac injuries

  28. Cardiac tamponade • Accumulation of blood in the pericardial cavity under pressure • Common causes are gunshot wounds and stabs • Clinical features • Tachycardia • Narrow pulse pressure • Elevated CVP • Hypotension Becks triad

  29. Cardiac tamponade • Pathophysiology • Elevated intra cardiac pressure • Decreased right and left ventricular filling • Decreased cardiac output

  30. Management-Pericardiocentesis

  31. Great vessel injuries • The main vessels • Aorta • Brachio cephalic branches • Pulmonary arteries and veins • Venae cavae • Thoracic duct

  32. Aortic injury • Commonly injured part is proximal descending aorta • Clinical manifestations • Hypo tension • hypertension in upper extremity& hypotension in lower extremities • Intra capsular murmurs or bruits • Diagnosis • Chest radiograph • TEECHO • Aortography

  33. Aortic rupture

  34. Management • Pharmacologic control of heart rate and blood pressure(around 60/mt and 100-120 mmHg systolic) • Hemodynamic monitoring (pul.catheter) • Sedatives • Analgesics • Vasodilators (sodium nitroprusside) • β –blockers (esmolol) • Auto transfusion • Surgical repair

  35. Nursing diagnoses • Acute pain • Fluid volume deficit • Decreased cardiac output • Inability to sustain spontaneous ventilation • Ineffective breathing pattern • Impaired gas exchange • Impaired tissue perfusion

  36. Try with this • acidosis • Respiratory • & Metabolic

  37. Other investigations • CT • Bronchoscopy • Oesophagoscopy • Oesophagography • Angiography

  38. Airway management- • Indications for mechanical ventilation • Altered mental status • Excessive secretions • Associated face and neck injuries • Impending respiratory failure • Cardiopulmonary collapse • Significant co morbidities • Advanced age • ABG abnormalities

  39. Fluid resuscitation Goal: to stabilize the intravascular volume sufficiently to provide time to manage hemorrhage • Insert at least two large bore IV catheters • Central/femoral/subclavian/IJV access • Control hemorrhage and then replace • Consider auto transfusion

  40. Thank you