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The Communication Process. Communication. The process of sending and receiving messages. Communication. Step 1. The sender transmits the message starting the communication process by using words, body language, or symbols. Step 2. The message is that which is sent or said. Step 3.

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The process of sending and

receiving messages.


step 1
Step 1

The sender transmits the message starting the communication process by using words, body language, or symbols.

step 2
Step 2

The message

is that which is sent or said.

step 3
Step 3

The receiver is the person who intercepts the message and then decodes or interprets it.

step 4
Step 4

Feedback includes the reactions the receiver gives to the message offered by the sender.

step 5
Step 5

Interference is a problem that blocks or alters the transmission of the message.






b types of communication
B. Types of Communication

Written communication - must be read

types of communication
Types of Communication

Oral/verbal communication - must be spoken

types of communication1
Types of Communication

Nonverbal communication-

relayed through facial

expressions or body

movements, expresses your

attitudes or moods about a

person. Ex. Thumbs up;

nodding a head; waving

types of communication2
Types of Communication

Symbol – anything that stands for

an idea and is used for communication which

can be verbal or nonverbal.

ii stage fright
II. Stage Fright -

is nervousness felt in front of an audience.

Public Speaking Video


A. Everyone gets stage fright.

  • You have a choice to control it or not control it.
  • Stage fright is caused by fear.

a. Fear is a normal reaction.

two sources of energy in our bodies
Two sources of energy in our bodies
  • Regular energy system is based on food, air and sleep – all of this contributes to functioning on a basic level.
  • “Emergency energy system” operates in stressful situations. A chemical called adrenaline is called into action.
  • Emergency energy systemreacts during stage fright.
common physical signs
Common Physical Signs
  • Upset stomach
  • Flushed face
  • Dizziness
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Excessive perspiration
  • Sweaty palms
  • Cold hands
  • Wobbly legs
stage fright
Stage Fright

2. Usually occurs right before we speak and during the first 30 seconds after we begin speaking

why our bodies are being flooded with energy because
Why? Our bodies are being flooded with energy because:

We are preparing for an emergency situation.

We don’t like to be evaluated or judged.

We don’t think our ideas are worth listening to.

We doubt we say our ideas well, or we fear the audience won’t like us while we are speaking.

d overcoming anxieties
D. Overcoming Anxieties
  • Speak in public often
  • Pick a subject that interests you
  • Thoroughly prepare (PREPARATION PREVENTS PANIC!!)
  • Think of your listeners
  • Become actively involved
  • Look your best
  • Look poised (confident)





“Nature has given us one tongue, but two ears that we may hear twice as much as we speak” ~Epictetus

Listening: to hear something with thoughtful attention and give consideration. To understand what was meant, not simply what was said.

Hearing -

the process of perceiving sound or the process by which noises and tones are received as stimuli.

rate gap is the difference between listening and speaking
Rate Gap – is the difference between listening and speaking
  • The average person can process 400 w.p.m. when listening.
  • The average person speaks between 120 to 180 w.p.m.
average time devoted to communication
Average time devoted to communication






E. Active listeners will listen with one or more of the following purposes in mind:

1. To understand

2. To remember

3. To evaluate

a determine the purpose
A. Determine the Purpose

1. To inform

2. To persuade

3. To entertain


C. Select and narrow your subject

D. Gather material from different sources

1. Look at yourself

2. Observe

3. Converse with others related to topic

4. Read all types of literature

E. Outline the speech

f practice practice practice
F. Practice, Practice, Practice!

a. Practice aloud and in front of a mirror with the outline gradually using it less and less

b. Practice w/ visual aid, use gestures

c. Practice w/ family members or use a video recorder

1 manuscript method
1. Manuscript Method

+ Material is written word for word

+ Delivered from a lectern

+ Political figures and elected officials often use this method of delivery (teleprompter)

- Functions as a security blanket for new speakers

- Lose eye contact with audience

- Lose credibility

2 memorized method
2. Memorized Method

+ Commit every word to memory

+ Uses no papers, no notes

+ Gestures and facial expressions are also planned

- Become more tense because you have forgotten a word

- Mind goes completely blank

- Words take over the speech instead of your message

3 extemporaneous method
3. Extemporaneous Method

+ Best method

+ Use outline and/or spot words

+ Use note cards for verbal latitude; jot down major transitions

+ Free to think on your feet

+ Allows you to make eye contact with the audience and pay attention to audience feedback

+ Allows your body to move with the speech

4 impromptu method
4. Impromptu Method

+ Not rehearsed, off the cuff

+ Little time for preparation

+ Need a quick mind and instant audience analysis

+ Can be impressive if you have talent, organizational skills, and confidence.

- Could lose train of thought and appear disorganized.

- Deal with dead space- fillers and; a; you know; like; uh; etc..

- As fluency goes down hill, so does your confidence


1. Review: average rate is 120 – 180 words per minute

2. Speaking too fast

a. Difficult to understand

b. Words too difficult to comprehend

  c. Meaning will be unclear

d. May run out of breath


3. Ways to improve your rate

a. Taking a deep breath

b. Speak deliberately and with feeling


1. Avoid monotone.

2. Rate and pitch work together - if your vary the speed and the notes in your voice you will be an effective speaker.

3. Use pitch to give different words more emphasis - by altering your vocal tones or pitch you will have voice inflection.


I think that you are the best.

I think that you are the best.

I think that you are the best.

I think that you are the best.

I think that you are the best.

I think that you are the best.


  1.Be alert to physical problems in the room (heating unit…noisy)

2.Open your mouth, drop your lower jaw, breath from your lungs, take deep breaths in through your nose and slowly release the air through your mouth.


1. Avoid "mumbling" and co-articulation where syllables run together

2. Don't speak fast, open your mouth

3 .Make you words and sentences crisp, clear, and sharp


1. Nothing destroys a speech faster than a mispronounced word

2. Use adictionaryto pronounce words correctly and listen to other people's speech patterns.


like a map the speech outline tells where you are going and how to get there.

types of outlines
Types of Outlines
  • Full sentence
  • Topic (Key Word)
  • Combination: sentence and topic
rules of outlining
Rules of Outlining

1. All main points in the assert/preview statement must support the assertion or purpose of the speech.

rules of outlining1
Rules of Outlining

2. Sub-points in the body must support, clarify or develop main points.

rules of outlining2
Rules of Outlining

3. There must only be one idea for each symbol.

  • A tool used to enhance a speech or clarify a point
visual aids1
Visual Aids
  • Choose aids that relate
  • Practice speech using visual aid
  • Keep aids clear and simple – no distractions
  • Make visual aid a necessary part ofyour speech
  • Keep them visible
almost the end
Almost the end…
  • You’ll demonstrate better eye contact than this:
  • You’ll sound more interesting (and less monotone) than this:
  • You’ll definitely make more sense than this:
  • Commentary:
  • You may even be this inspirational or memorable to us: