Chapter 3 the basics of fashion
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Chapter 3 the Basics of Fashion. Lesson 2.3 Design and Color. By Design. Successful and legendary classic styles are not theatrical, but memorable. The principles and elements of design are used to create both eye-pleasing and financially successful styles. The Principles.

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Chapter 3 the basics of fashion

Chapter 3 the Basics of Fashion

Lesson 2.3 Design and Color

By design
By Design

  • Successful and legendary classic styles are not theatrical, but memorable. The principles and elements of design are used to create both eye-pleasing and financially successful styles.

The principles
The Principles

  • The principles of design are the fundamental rules that guide good design, whether for a garment, a home furnishing, or a print media advertisement.

  • The design principles include:

    • Balance

    • Contrast

    • Rhythm

    • Unity

    • Proportion

The principles1
The Principles

  • Balance can be achieved by placing equal weights at equal distance from the center to create –formal balance.

  • Informal Balance – can be achieved by moving a heavier weight to the center and the lighter weight to the outer edge.

The principles2
The Principles

  • Contrast or (Emphasis) is what attracts your attention at first glance.

    • Opposite sizes

    • Opposite colors

The principles3
The Principles

  • Rhythm creates eye movement and occurs when an element is repeated.

    • Repeating Color

      • Example: white collar shirt – white cuffs on a dark dress

The principles4
The Principles

  • Unity links the visual elements, making them appear to belong together

    • Example: Wearing a tie that contains small amounts of the color of the jacket help unite the outfit

The principles5
The Principles

  • Proportion relates the size and shape of all the elements used in a design.

    • Example a short jacket with a long skirt can be in proportion

The elements
The Elements

  • The elements of design include lines, shapes, texture, and color.

  • The principles are applied to the elements, which come together to define the design

The elements1
The Elements

  • Lines can be curved or straight and flowing or pointed

    • Designed with seams

    • Waist lines

    • Sleeves

The elements2
The Elements

  • Shapes or silhouettes are formed when lines enclose a space.

    • Hourglass

    • Rectangle

    • Triangle

The elements3
The Elements

  • Texture is the feel of the design and can be created using different weaves of fabric or visually with lines.

  • The use of color in the design can affect:

    • Moods

    • Feelings

    • Emotions

The elements4
The Elements

  • All designs contain the elements, but application of the principles determines how pleasing the design will be to the viewer.


  • Color is important to fashion that a whole association exists just to predict trends in color.

  • Two associations are:

    • Color Marketing Group

    • Color Association of the United State (CAUS)


  • CAUS

    • Founded in 1915 and is the OLDEST association

    • Established when WW1 made it difficult to get color forecasts from Europe

    • Textile Industry needed forecast for upcoming production runs

    • A committee of U.S. textile professionals was formed

    • “Color Card” issued twice a year to members

    • Approximately 1,000 members

Color traditions
Color Traditions

  • Culturally, colors can take on significant meanings that can be fashionably applied to garments.

    • Asian culture – red means happiness

    • Jewish traditions – red means love and blue means glory

    • U.S.A. – red, white, and blue mean patriotism

      • CAUS standardized our flag and called it “Old Glory Red” and “Old Glory Blue”

  • Colors affect people’s sense and either attract or repel buyers

Chapter 2 basics of fashion

Chapter 2 Basics of Fashion

2.4 Textiles and Construction

The foundation
The Foundation

  • The textile industry is the foundation for the fashion industry

  • Fashion designers create using textiles

  • Designers look to the textile industry to forecast what’s coming for the next season and to offer a new medium for the designer to shape.

Nature s fabrics
Nature’s Fabrics

  • Fibers are the thin threads that are spun into yarn

  • Yarn is woven into fabric

  • In the early 1900s the majority of fabrics were made from three natural fibers:

    • Silk

    • Wool

    • Cotton

Nature s fabrics1
Nature’s Fabrics

  • Silk was used to richly dress royalty

    • It’s lightweight and can keep the skin warm or cool

    • It’s made from the cocoon of a silkworm, which eats only mulberry leaves.

    • When you unravel the fiber produced by the worm it produces a filament

  • Filament is a long continuous fiber and may be 1,100 yards long

  • Silk is shiny because the fiber is made up of triangular shapes which reflects the light

Nature s fabrics2
Nature’s Fabrics

  • Wool fibers are produced from animal hair called fleece.

  • Most wool is from sheep.

    • Angora goats

    • Llamas

  • Australia produces more wool than any other country.

Nature s fabrics3
Nature’s Fabrics

  • Cotton fibers are produced from the seed pods of the cotton plant

    • Cotton bloom, wither, and then fall

    • Leaves a green pod called a boll

    • The bolls ripen and pop open exposing the cotton fibers

  • Cotton makes up more than 40% of the fiber production worldwide

  • India and the United States are the biggest producers of cotton

Nature s fabrics4
Nature’s Fabrics

  • Major use of cotton fabric is for the production of denim

    • The name originated from Nimes, France (serge de dnimes)

    • Shortened to Denim

    • Denim was used by Levi Strauss to produce a long-lasting pant (Jeans) for California miners

Man made fibers
Man-Made Fibers

  • Fibers can be produced using a combination of cellulose and chemicals or may be produced with chemicals alone

  • Cellulose fibers are produced using plants combined with chemical processes

    • Rayon

    • Acetate

    • Triacetate

Man made fiber
Man-Made Fiber

  • Synthetic fibers are produced using only chemicals

    • Polyester

    • Nylon

    • Spandex

    • Acrylic

  • Petroleum- based chemicals produce a majority of synthetic fibers

Man made fibers1
Man-Made Fibers

  • The mass production of fabrics (textile industry) made the movement of fashion from royalty to the public possible.

Under construction
Under Construction

  • Findings are the things used, besides the main fabric, that are needed to complete the garments

    • Zippers

    • Buttons

    • Thread

    • Lining Materials

    • Trim

Putting it together
Putting it Together

  • The cost of a garment is directly related to the techniques used in construction of the garment.

  • Garments can be poorly made

    • Poor quality and construction of garment can cause the customer to return the product to the store.

    • Multiple returns with the same construction problem will involved the manufacturer to correct of pay for the problem. The manufacturer in turn gains no profit.

      • Example: Product Recalls

Putting it together1
Putting it Together

  • Stitching is the interlocking or interlooping of thread used to join two pieces of fabric.

  • Seam is the joint at which the two pieces of fabric meet

    • Level of importance

      • Fabric

      • Stitching

  • The better the stitch, the better the quality, the more thread use, means more expensive to produce.

Putting it together2
Putting it Together

  • Signs of a quality item

    • No raw edges

    • No loose thread

    • No broke stitches

    • Look for buttonholes that are sized right for the button

  • Ratcheting is when a zipper comes apart when stress is applied to the two sides. It indicates a cheap zipper that will not last.

Putting it together3
Putting it Together

  • Companies that produce high quality garments perform three inspections:

    • 1st while the garment is still under construction

    • 2nd when the product is finished

    • 3rd inspection is performed on all or at least a random sampling of the garments produced