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Chapter 1 The Basics of Biology. What causes it to rain?. What causes lightning?. What causes a tornado?. 1-1 What is Science?. An organized approach to figuring out why something happens Make an observation Gathering data Experiment

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1 1 what is science
1-1 What is Science?
  • An organized approach to figuring out why something happens
    • Make an observation
    • Gathering data
    • Experiment
      • Involves inference – a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience
the bean
The Bean
  • “No! The bean is not alive”.
  • “Yes, the bean is alive when you put it in soil”.
  • “Yes. The bean is alive in the bag”.
1 3 studying life
1-3 Studying Life
  • If Biology is the study of living things… how do we know what is living & what isn't?????
characteristics of living things
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Respond to their environment
  • Made up of units called cells
  • Obtain & Use Energy
  • Grow & Develop
  • Reproduce
  • Based on a universal genetic code = DNA
  • Taken as a group, change over time
  • Maintain a stable internal environment
respond to their environment
Respond to their environment
  • Stimulus – an outside signal
made up of units called cells
Made up of units called cells
  • Cell = small self-contained unit
    • Barrier separates it from surroundings
  • Unicellular – organism made up of only one cell
    • Ex: Bacteria, protists
  • Multicellular – organism made up of two or more cells
    • Ex: Fungi, plants, animals, etc.
obtain use energy
Obtain & Use Energy
  • Metabolism = combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
grow develop
Grow & Develop
  • Grow = to increase in size
  • Develop = change in appearance along with growth
    • “maturation”
    • EX: Butterflies begin life as eggs, then become caterpillars, a pupa, and finally emerge as adult butterflies.
reproduce
Reproduce
  • Reproduce = produce new organisms of the same type
  • Asexual Reproduction
    • Single organism can reproduce without aid of another
    • Ex: budding (hydra)
    • Ex: binary fission (bacteria)
  • Sexual Reproduction
    • Two cells from DIFFERENT individuals unite to produce new organism
    • Ex: humans, plants
based on a universal genetic code
Based on a universal genetic code
  • Offspring will resemble their parents.
    • Ex: Flies produce flies, dogs produce dogs, and seeds from maple trees produce maple trees.
  • The genetic code, with a few minor variations, determines the inherited traits of every organism on Earth
  • Genetic Code = DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
taken as a group change over time
Taken as a group, change over time
  • Evolution = group of organisms changing over generations
    • Ex: Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert.
maintain a stable internal environment
Maintain a stable internal environment
  • Homeostasis – a living thing’s ability to maintain constant conditions necessary for life
    • Body temperature: you sweat when you’re too hot, shiver when you’re too cold
    • Blood pH
1 4 tools and procedures
1-4 Tools and Procedures
  • How scientists work…
    • Lab safety
    • Metric system
metric system
Metric System
  • Universal system of measurement for science
    • Length?
      • meter
    • Volume?
      • liter (liquid)
      • cubic centimeter (solid)
    • Mass?
      • gram
    • Temperature?
      • Celsius scale
      • Kelvin
slide19

Kilo

Hecto

Deka

BASE

Deci

Centi

Milli

  • Base Units for the Metric System:
  • Liters = volume
  • Meters = distance
  • Grams = mass
convert the following using the staircase
Convert the following using the staircase
  • 54.11 deciliters = liters
  • 47 hectometers = decimeters
  • 2293 dekagrams = decigrams
  • 4731 liters = hectoliters
  • 5912 kilograms = grams
  • 0.01 grams = milligrams
  • 0.0108 centimeters = meters
  • 3851 milliliters = dekaliters
homework
Homework
  • 56 hectometers = decimeters
  • 94.66 deciliters = liters
  • 1183 dekagrams = decigrams
  • 5842 liters = hectoliters
  • 6833 kilograms = grams
  • 0.0023 centimeters = meters
  • 4967 milliliters = dekaliters
  • 0.07 grams = milligrams
microscopes
Microscopes
  • Compound Light Microscope
    • 2-dimensional
    • Can see LIVING things.
    • High magnification
      • Able to see cells
    • Low resolution
      • Only magnify 1000 times.
what is magnification
What is magnification?
  • Magnification is the enlargement in size of an image.
what is resolution
What is resolution?
  • Resolution is the clarity of an image, or the level of detail in the image.