World War 1 1914-1918
The US before WW1 • REMEMBER! • Industrialization • The US begins to increase industry during rebuilding from the Civil War (Reconstruction) • Immigration • Foreigners begin entering the US for work, religious freedom, etc. • Progressive Era • Americans are concerned with topics like temperance, suffrage, food safety, etc. • US Expansion • The US begins looking toward becoming a world power through colonization and industrial growth
Causes of World War I • Militarism - naval/arms race • Alliances - Allies vs. Central Powers • Imperialism - control over weaker nations • Nationalism - pride in one’s country Russia will pull out of war…USA will enter later…
The Alliance System Triple Entente Triple Alliance • Great Britain Germany • France Austria- Hungary • Russia Italy
Two Armed Camps Allied PowersCentral Powers Great Britain Germany France Austria-Hungary Russia Ottoman Empire Italy
Nationalism. National and political pride in the empire (patriotism?) “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family Assassinated in Sarajevo
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
The Start of the War • On June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, of Austria-Hungary was shot (along with his wife) in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Hertzegovnia.
An Assassin’s Story (pg. 8a) • As a class, we will read page 8a-b, then answer the questions on page 8b.
Homework • Complete the map on page 9 of your packet. • Be sure to follow directions (and fill in the key…) • Answer questions 1-5 (you do NOT have to use complete sentences)
An Assassin’s Story (pg. 8a-b) • What was Gavrilo Princip’s dream? • Explain how the following countries became involved in WW1: Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain. • What country left one group to join the other? Why? • List the countries that fought on the side of the Triple Entente. • List the countries that fought on the side of the Triple Alliance.
The Beginning of the War…it’s very simple Declared War Britain France Belgium Serbia Germany Austria-Hungary Allies Russia Assassination Declared war to get to France Allies Allies Prepare for war Declare war Allies Declare war Germany Declares War when Russia readies troops
The Great War Map (pg. 9) • In what country was Sarajevo located? • How does the geographic location of the Central Powers put them at a disadvantage? • Which of the Central Powers borders Russia? • Judging from the map, why was the alliance between France and Russia a threat to Germany? • On July 28th, who did Austria-Hungary declare war on?
Declaration of Neutrality • What does neutrality mean? • What do you think President Wilson meant when he said “the people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war?” • What does President Wilson mean when he said that the US “must be neutral in fact as well as in name?”
American Neutrality (pg. 12) The official position of the United States was neutrality when WWI broke out. Opinion was varied. Most Americans favored the Allies. They spoke the same language and shared many traditions. The United States and France had also been allies in the American Revolution.
American Neutrality (pg. 12) However, about 8 million people were of German or Austrian decent and sided with the Central Powers.
American Neutrality (pg. 12) • The United States benefited from the war for several reasons. The economy boomed. Both the Allied and Central Powers needed food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods. Americans rushed to fill orders. By 1917, trade with the Allies had grown SEVEN times in value and by a smaller amount Central Powers. (And in some cases, decreased). This trade imbalance meant that the US was not strictly neutral as it claimed to be.
US Exports (pg. 13) • What happened to trade with major ALLIED Powers between 1914 and 1916? • What happened to trade with major CENTRAL Powers between 1914 and 1916? • What does the difference tell you?
The Zimmermann Telegram (pg. 16) • February, 28 1917 • To Bernstorff, • Washington DC • US press to publish contents of telegram sent to Von Eckhardt tomorrow prepare for public outrage and massive demonstrations outside embassy. • Zimmermann • Berlin
The Zimmermann Telegram (page 17-18) • What type of document is this? • Primary Source (telegram) • What does Germany plan to do on February 1? • Begin unrestricted submarine warfare • What does Germany want the United States to do? • Remain neutral
The Zimmermann Telegram (page 17-18) • What does Germany promise to Mexico? • Land lost in the Mexican-American war (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona) • Why do you think this document was written? • To communicate with Mexico • To warn the United States • To get the US involved in WW1
Make War for Democracy (pg. 12a-b) • 1. What was the attitude in the US toward the war in Europe when it began in 1914? • Neutral • 2. Why did President Woodrow Wilson change his mind about the war? • Submarine warfare by Germany • 3. What did Representative Claude Kitchin suggest the US do to avoid war with Germany? • Stop trading with the allies
Government Involvement - The War at Home • Using pages 654-660 in your textbook, fill in the boxes on page 19 in your packet. • You may use bulleted answers (not in complete sentences). • You should try to find at least 2 bullet points for each box.
How did the United States raise money to fight the war? War bonds Raised $21 billion How did the government get people to support the war? Hollywood movie stars support bond sales “Four-Minute Men” Women worked in factories (and were paid more for it) Government Involvement (pg. 19)