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Psychology 001 Introduction to Psychology Christopher Gade , PhD Office: 621 Heafey Office hours: F 3-6 and by apt. Email: Class WF 7:00-8:30 Heafey 650. The remaining classes…. In the final two classes of the course, we’ll be discussing three major disorder groups.

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The remaining classes

Psychology 001Introduction to PsychologyChristopher Gade, PhDOffice: 621 HeafeyOffice hours: F 3-6 and by apt. Email: Class WF 7:00-8:30 Heafey 650

The remaining classes
The remaining classes…

  • In the final two classes of the course, we’ll be discussing three major disorder groups.

    • Anxiety disorders

    • Mood disorders

    • Schizophrenia

Mood disorders
Mood Disorders

  • Mood disorders all involve long-term problems with basic emotions

  • All but one of the most prevalent mood disorders are associated with a negative, unpleasant mood

  • There are a number of mood disorders that exist, with one being the most prevalent and well known

    • Depression

    • Seasonal Affective Disorder

    • Dysthymia

    • Bipolar Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder and dysthymia
Seasonal Affective Disorder and Dysthymia

  • Seasonal Affective Disorder

    • Associated with the change of seasons

    • Symptoms are similar to those of depression, but to a milder extent

    • Light therapy is a popular treatment for this disorder

    • Prevalence of disorder depends upon location

      • approx 1% of Floridians

      • Approx 9-10% of Minnesotans

  • Dysthymia

    • Symptoms are similar to those of depression

    • Much less severe symptoms

    • Lasts much longer than depression (2 years before diagnosis)

    • Not considered traumatic at any given time, but can be very debilitating through its long-term effects

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar Disorder

  • AKA manic depressive disorder

  • Found in only 1% of the population

  • involves a person alternating between feeling depressed and feeing manic: constantly active and uninhibited, excited or irritable

  • Two forms of bipolar disorder

    • Bipolar Type I

    • Bipolar Type II (hypomania)

  • Twin studies suggest a genetic component to Bipolar Disorder

  • Treatments include Lithium and anticonvulsants


  • Depression, SAD, Dysthymia, and Bipolar Disorder are all classified under the same category in the DSM (affective disorders)

  • Each again has its own prevalence, defining characteristics, and causes/solutions

  • But… just like with anxiety disorders, when looking at these disorders, they are all considered very similar by most clinical psychologists


  • What it is NOT: multiple personality disorder, sociopathy, or antisocial personality disorder

  • What it is: a severe disconnect with reality with many cognitive and emotional symptoms

    • Affects about 1% of the population

    • Almost identical incidence in men & women (7:5 ratio has been found in recent studies)

    • Onset is usually sometime between 16 and 25 yrs old (later for women)

Diagnosis of schizophrenia
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

  • The DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia requires that the person exhibit a complete deterioration of daily activities along with at least two of the following symptoms:

    • Hallucinations

    • Delusions or thought disorders

    • Incoherent speech

    • Grossly disorganized behavior

    • Loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors

      • Note: If the hallucinations or delusions are severe enough, no other symptoms are required in the diagnosis of this disorder

More on the symptoms
More on the symptoms…

  • Schizophrenia symptoms are categorized into two groups

    • Positive Symptoms: behaviors that are present, or added to the persons repertoire of behavior as a result of the schizophrenia

    • Negative Symptoms: behaviors that are diminished, or absent from the persons repertoire of behavior as a result of the schizophrenia

Positive symptoms
Positive Symptoms

  • Hallucinations: perceiving things that are not there (auditory and visual)

    • Auditory hallucinations are much more common that visual ones

    • Note: Almost all of us occasionally have auditory (any maybe visual) hallucinations. Schizophrenics are distinguished by the frequency and complexity of these hallucinations.

  • Delusions: very rigid false or unfounded beliefs

    • persecution: others (groups and individuals) are conspiring against or persecuting the individual (e.g. “they’re after me”)

    • grandiose: unusual importance (e.g. pregnancy ‘flicks’)

    • reference: interpreting messages as if they were meant for oneself (codes in the newspaper headlines)

    • bizarre: random delusions that don’t fall under any of the previous categories (some of my vital organs are missing)

Negative symptoms
Negative Symptoms

  • Flat affect: blunted expression of emotion, e.g. mask-like face, flat voice, poor eye contact

  • Anhedonia: Diminished ability to experience pleasure, e.g. report little enjoyment in life, seek out few enjoyable activities

  • Social withdrawal

  • Inattentiveness, thought blocking (a particularly abrupt or complete interruption of thought)

Disorganized symptoms
Disorganized Symptoms

  • Disorganized speech:

    • severe tangentiality

    • loose associations

    • derailment of thought

  • Disorganized behavior:

    • catatonic behavior

    • unusual postures

Theorized causes
Theorized Causes

  • Genetic

    • Twin studies suggest a genetic component in susceptibility for schizophrenia

    • No single gene has been linked to schizophrenia

  • Brain abnormality/malformation

    • the hippocampus and parts of the cerebral cortex are a little smaller than normal, the cerebral ventricles are larger than normal, the neurons are smaller there are fewer synapses in the prefrontal cortex

    • Is this a causal or correlational relationship?

  • The neurodevelopmental hypothesis

    • schizophrenia is the result of nervous system impairments that develop before and/or around the time of birth

    • Caused partially though genetics, but also through environmental influences:

      • poor prenatal care

      • difficult pregnancy and labor

      • mother’s exposure to influenza virus


  • Medication: Antipsychotic or neurolepticdrugs

    • These all relieve symptoms for at least a little while

    • Some block dopamine synapses in the brain, others effect glutamate concentration

    • Most in the past produced unpleasant side effects: tardivedyskenesia

  • Hospitalization: useful for only acute episodes

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT):

    • Hallucinations: help patients perceive distinctions between internal/external

    • Delusions: treat self-esteem or other psychological issues

    • Flat affect: increase social skills

    • Anhedonia: increase activities

Treatment success
Treatment Success

  • Most treatments provide temporary success almost immediately

  • Over the long run, success rates wane greatly

  • Success rates are highly associated with the intensity of the symptoms pre-treatment, and the time between onset and treatment of the disorder

  • The Rule of thirds for medication:

    • Acute and sudden onset: good response to medication

    • Middle: could be either sudden or acute, mixed response to medication

    • Chronic: slow, insidious onset, poor response to medication

The end

  • This marks the end of the lectures for this class

  • In our next class, we’ll have the final exam

  • Papers are also due at that time, so make sure to bring them with you

  • Good luck in your studies, and thanks for spending some time with me this summer