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Pharmacy Competencies Graduated* Descriptors :. A professional development tool for experiential placement students *graduated = stepped, incremental. What is “competency”? . Competence is a generic term referring to a person’s overall capacity

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pharmacy competencies graduated descriptors

Pharmacy Competencies Graduated* Descriptors :

A professional development tool for experiential placement students

*graduated = stepped, incremental

what is competency
What is “competency”?
  • Competence is a generic term referring to a person’s overall capacity
  • Competencies are made up of the attributes of knowledge, skills and attitudes.
  • Competency Standards ‘define the competencies required for effective performance in employment’.
  • ‘A competency comprises the specification of knowledge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill within an occupation or industry level, to the standard of performance required in employment’
workplace competency
Workplace Competency
  • Competence within professions is characterised by a body of knowledge, skills and values.
  • Demonstration and interpretation of these attributes depends on multiple circumstances including the disposition of the individual practitioner, the individual client, the professional role, the professional task & environmental settings & policies.
  • Competence is a relative term dependent on context.
workplace competency1
Workplace Competency
  • Miller’s triangle refers to assessment of competency.
  • “Knows” factual exam papers
  • “Knows how” clinical context type test
  • “Shows how” simulated patient, OSCEs etc
  • “Does” in vivo in the workplace
levels of competence
Levels of Competence

Novice Student ( Owen & Stupans, 2007, adapted from McAllister 2006)

  • can recall some aspects of theory
  • high supervisory support needed
  • time needed for clinical responsibilities
  • focused on own performance not client
  • problem-solving/planning support needed

Intermediate Student

  • recognises aspects of theory in order to problem solve
  • some supervisory support needed in complex situations
  • developing automaticity
  • needs support with prioritising, flexibility

Entry-level Student

  • recognises theory to problem solve, is able to integrate theory (knowledge)
  • seeks support for new activities
  • sufficient automaticity for client focus
  • can perform work independently in some areas
pharmacy competency standards 2003
Pharmacy Competency Standards (2003)
  • Pharmacy has eight broad competency areas or functional areas (FA). Associated with each of these is more detailed information about the actual competency units, elements and evidence cues which help in the assessing of the competencies.
  • FA1: Practise pharmacy in a professional & ethical manner
  • FA2: Manage work issues and interpersonal relationships in pharmacy practice
  • FA3: Promote & contribute to optimal use of medicines
  • FA4: Dispense medicines
  • FA5: Prepare pharmaceutical products
  • FA6: Provide primary health care
  • FA7: Provide medicines & health information & education
  • FA8: Apply organisational skills in the practice of pharmacy
assessment of competencies
Assessment of competencies
  • Formal assessment in the competencies mostly happens in the internship process prior to registration.At university and within placements students are learning the skills and knowledge and getting prepared for forthcoming practice.So for example in developing dispensing skills at university and in placements, students will be learning about pharmacology, therapeutics, legislation and practicing a dispensing process
competency as a journey graduated stepped incremental
Competency as a journey, (graduated = stepped, incremental)
  • As a student “how well am I progressing?”
  • As a preceptor “how can I provide feedback for my student?”
  • Tool provides a gateway for dialogue
  • Pharmacy students should develop and apply self-assessment skill (this is linked to life-long learning skills, though difficulties of self-assessment are acknowledged.)
  • Preceptors should develop and apply feedback skill (verification supports student self-assessment and increases accuracy)
using the tool
Using the tool
  • The tool is easy to use!
  • Note the layout of the diagram tool on pages 2-5; there are 2 Functional Areas on each page
          • At the top is the Functional Area (linked to the profession’s competencies) and a brief descriptor
  • The left side of each diagram gives ‘cues’ about each competency area in terms of early placement, with some additional ‘cues’ for late placement
  • The right panel relates to internship and the newly-competent professional
using the tool cont
Using the tool (cont.)
  • The four developmental aspects already introduced of Level of Support, Time Taken, Clinical Problem-solving and Degree of Client Focus are shown, with boxes provided to tick relevant categories for each aspect.
  • A comment box is provided for clarifying remarks or to indicate ‘Not applicable’
summary of competency descriptors
Summary of competency descriptors

Competency Graduated Descriptors

Tool Example

Basis of global judgment

Developing ability

slide12

Summary of Competency Descriptor Cues Pt 1

Functional Area 2: Manage work issues & interpersonal relationships in pharmacy practice

Early placement student

With assistance & significant additional time

Knows and applies key principles of communication…………

Applies basic counselling protocol……

Late placement student

With guidance & only some additional time

..& adjusts; uses a conversational approach

...& tailors to individual situations

slide13
Summary of Competency Descriptor Cues Pt 2Functional Area 2: Manage work issues & interpersonal relationships in pharmacy practice

Early placement student

With assistance & significant additional time

Applies basic negotiation strategies with preceptor…..

Observes & discusses situations of conflict…

…& can relate to other staff/health professionals

…& uses some effective conflict resolution strategies

Late placement student

With guidance & only some additional time

slide14
Summary of Competency Descriptor Cues Pt 3Functional Area 2: Manage work issues & interpersonal relationships in pharmacy practice

Early placement student

With assistance & significant additional time

Gives presentations…………

Produces accurate written records & reports……

…………….

…………….

Late placement student

With guidance & only some additional time

slide15
Summary of Competency Descriptor Cues Pt 1Functional Area 3: Promote and contribute to optimal use of medicines

Early placement student

With assistance & significant additional time

Late placement student

With guidance & only some additional time

Identifies & accesses relevant information……………

Participates in client interaction using protocols provided……………….

…& monitors & reviews drug use

…& adapts to client needs in identifying treatment options

slide16
Summary of Competency Descriptor Cues Pt 2Functional Area 3: Promote and contribute to optimal use of medicines

Early placement student

With assistance & significant additional time

Processes records/information & identifies various options………….

Recognises own limitations & seeks advice from preceptor……………

…& makes several recommendations with justification

…& identifies appropriate referral pathways

Late placement student

With guidance & only some additional time

using the tool early placement student
Using the tool: Early placement student

Competency Graduated Descriptors cues for dispense medicines

Functional area 4: dispense medicines

Word picture association

Early placement student ‘Product selection. Label errors, focussed purely on getting labelling correct rather than checking appropriateness for patient’

Early placement student ‘with assistance (direction) & significant additional time’:

Assesses prescription validity

Clarifies medication orders

Assesses appropriateness of prescribed medicines

Follows predefined systematic dispensing

Carries out specific documentation tasks

Identifies relevant information

using the tool late placement student
Using the tool: Late placement student

Functional area 4: dispense medicines

Word picture association

Late placement student : ‘Efficient, accurate checking therapeutics – interactions, correct doses and formulation’

Late placement student

Cues are same as early placement but ‘with guidance (prompting) & only some additional time ‘ +

..& provides information to patients as appropriate …….

Competency Graduated Descriptors cues for dispense medicines