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Chapter 13 – Industrial Growth in the North (1790 – 1860)

Chapter 13 – Industrial Growth in the North (1790 – 1860). Industrial Revolution. Definition Period of rapid growth in the use of machines in production …

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Chapter 13 – Industrial Growth in the North (1790 – 1860)

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  1. Chapter 13 – Industrial Growth in the North (1790 – 1860)

  2. Industrial Revolution Definition Period of rapid growth in the use of machines in production… In this chapter, we see how technology changes the US forever and a new “revolution” of change comes to the US…

  3. Question #1 Part A What do YOU think is the invention you depend on the most… (Write this down as QUESTION #1 in your notes…)

  4. Part B With your “elbow buddy,”decide, between the two of you, the MOST important inventions in your lives. (You MUST agree – write all your ideas down …brainstorm…then pick two… ONLY two)

  5. Part C With those few sitting around you (don’t get out of your seat) – decide on the most important invention EVER! Yes, of all time … something that no one could possibly live the same quality of life with if we didn’t have it. (Again, jot down ideas…circle the one idea that the group agrees on… majority rule…)

  6. Back to just YOU… What do you believe is the ONE invention that “revolutionized” the world? In other words, because of this invention, the world has been changed forever – it isn’t the same as it was before…

  7. Changed the world?

  8. The world at this time… The people are farmers (agrarian) and there is very little major industry – lots of small businesses out of homes, small shops… However, people are coming and we need jobs – we need to find something for them to do…more workers means more products – and, more $$$!

  9. “The times…they are a’changin’” Society of the US is changing…and change is often hard…people, by nature, don’t particularly like change… But, in order to advance, we will see changes in industrialization, transportation (canals, roads, RR), communication (Morse code, telephone, postal service, and newspapers)…so much more…

  10. Why industrialize? Isn’t farming enough? Conditions for industrialization in the US… • Resources Europe didn’t have – wood, ore – were all over US • Labor – most people are farmers – might work to earn extra $$ • People spread apart – distances large • Shortages of skilled workers • Immigrants work for anything – new opportunities • Investment $$ short (capital) – people usually invested in land or oversea trade… Industrialization comes LATE to US – why? * England passes law (treason) to stop flow of technology * US dependent on farming– didn’t want to depend on Europe * Shortage of labor, capital, and skills!

  11. The Industrial Revolution (one of many) Industrial Revolution is a period of time in which rapid growth in the use of machines began in manufacturing and in productions… One of the first examples in the US was in textile (fabric or cloth items). A man named Samuel Slater could probably be called the “father of the US Industrial Revolution”. He was a Brit who immigrated to the US and teamed up with Moses Brown, who already had a textile business. But, Slater brought will him, in his head, the European technological advances in machinery.

  12. Together, they built a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Why there? They used existing physical features to power the plant – a water wheel on a fast-flowing river (typical of many rivers in NE) – hydropower! Slater could have been tried for treason if he had been caught with plans for the machinery …as it was, he was able to recreate the engineering from his own knowledge! KNOWLEDGE IS POWER!

  13. How does industrialization effect families? Hiring of entire families to work in the factories – building “communities” – known as the Rhode Island System. Sometimes, only the young women were hired to work in the factory – most were girls from local farms and families could benefit from the additional income – boarding houses – the Lowell System. Sometimes the young men were hired as apprentices – hired to learn the trade and later to open their own businesses (shoe makers, silversmiths, blacksmiths, etc…)

  14. New factories lead to growth in cities… • Early factories run on hydropower (near fast moving rivers) • Soon switch to steam power – allowed factories to be built anywhere – could move closer to labor force and markets…and could move closer so that shipping costs were lower! • Workers often moved with (or to) factories for work • This leads to a growth in cities as industrial centers So, is there still a need for farmers? Of course! All those “city dwellers” needed to eat – growth of “farmer’s markets” and grocery stores…

  15. Was everyone accepting of the new industrial nation? In today’s economy, ANY job would be a good job for some people. Is any factory or job too controversial to be located in Fort Wayne? What about your neighborhood? What needs to be done to make a community accept new jobs if the facility itself isn’t welcome?

  16. Workers unite! As more factories opened and people were flooding the market, competition by workers made them accept longer hours and poor working conditions… Immigrants were willing to work for less – often created tension between “locals” and immigrants… Trade unions begin to form – factories DIDN’T want them, workers did… Sarah Bagley (read her story) Unions forced reforms – limit on work day – 10 hours tops!

  17. Transportation Revolution! Period of rapid growth in both speed and convenience of travel and trade. • Opened new markets • Lowered overall costs of shipping Steamboats – new technology – Robert Fulton and the Clermontmade trade easier and encouraged midwestern settlement Gibbons v. Ogden – 1st Supreme Court ruling on interstate commerce (p. 413)

  18. Labor Unions then…and today… What role do you think labor unions played in the mid-1800’s? Do you think workers need labor unions today? If the govt made labor unions illegal today, would it change business and manufacturing in any way? Would it help or hurt workers? Businesses?

  19. Railroads! Use of steam power! Cooper and Tom Thumb (1830) – aided industrial growth in the North… * Faster than ever – wrecks common! • Soon, major cities were linked by rail • In 30 years, almost 30,000 miles of track was laid and railroads were changing trade and travel in US • Many RR beds used obsolete canal tow paths or the canal itself – already cleared of trees!

  20. Communication Revolution! Samuel B. Morse – the telegraph and Morse code – information sent over wires using concepts of electricity and magnetism… Most telegraph lines ran along RR lines – so, telegraph stations were often in train stations. Today, many telephone lines also run alongside RR lines! This means “Happy Father’s Day” in Morse Code!

  21. Farmers need better technology, too! John Deere (tractor for planting), Cyrus McCormick (harvesting) Issac Singer helps seamstresses, too – the Singer Sewing machine! That’s it for chapter 13!

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