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STAFFING. Human Resource Management. The integration of all processes, programs, and systems in an organization that ensure staff are acquired and used in an effective way. Human Resource Management (Contd.). HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of

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Staffing 1285856

Human Resource Management

The integration of all processes, programs, and systems in an organization that ensure staff are acquired and used in an effective way


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Human Resource Management (Contd.)

HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of

  • Economics (wages, markets, resources),

  • Psychology (motivation, satisfaction),

  • Sociology (organization structure, culture) and

  • Law (min. wage, labor contracts)

    What HR Professionals Do?

  • HR planning

  • Recruitment & Selection

  • Training and development

  • Compensation & Performance review

  • Labor relations


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Human Resource Planning

Assessing Current

Human Resources

Assessing Future

Human Resource

Needs

Developing a

Program to Meet

Needs


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Human Resource Planning

The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed


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HR Planning

  • We have found the gap, how do we fill this void?

    • Internal Labour Supply

      • Skill Inventory

      • Succession Planning

      • Replacement Planning

        • Inventory Chart

          • Present & Future staffing situations

          • Helps in retention & expulsion strategy

    • External Labour Supply


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Job Analysis (Functional Job Analysis, Position analysis questionnaire) A Basic Human Resource Management Tool

  • Human Resource Planning

  • Recruitment

  • Selection

  • Training and Development

  • Performance Appraisal

  • Compensation and Benefits

  • Safety and Health

  • Employee and Labor Relations

  • Legal Considerations

  • Job Analysis for Teams

Tasks

Responsibilities

Duties

Job Descriptions

Job Analysis

Job Specifications

Knowledge

Skills

Abilities


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Definitions

  • Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals

  • Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization

  • Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization (functional job analysis , position analysis questionnaire)

  • Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job

  • Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job


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Recruitment

  • Process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable candidates

  • Can be for current or future needs

  • Critical activity for some corporations.

  • What sources do we use for recruitment



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School

Placement

Employee

Referrals

Internal

Searches

Recruitment

Sources

Voluntary

Applicants

Employment

Agencies

Advertisements


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SELECTION

A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee.

  • Selection process.

    Step 1 Completing application materials.

    Step 2 Conducting an interview.

    Step 3 Completing any necessary tests.

    Step 4 Doing a background investigation.

    Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.


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Selection process

Step 1 Completing application materials.

  • Gathering information regarding an applicant’s background and experiences.

  • Typical application materials.

    • Traditional application forms.

    • Résumés.

    • Sometimes tests may be included with application materials.

      Step 2 Conducting an interview.

  • Typically used though they are subject to perceptual distortions.

  • Interviews can provide rough ideas concerning the person’s fit with the job and the organization.


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Selection process

Step 3 Completing any necessary tests.

  • Administered before or after the interview.

  • Common examples of employment tests.

    • Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical aptitudes or abilities.

    • Personality.

      Step 4 Doing a background investigation.

  • Can be used early or late in selection process.

  • Background investigations include:

    • Basic level checks.

    • Reference checks.


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Selection process

Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.

  • Draws on information produced in preceding selection steps.

  • A job offer is made.

  • A physical examination may be required if it is relevant to job performance.

  • Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for some jobs.

    Step 6 Socialization.

  • The final step in the staffing process.

  • Involves orienting new employees to:

    • The firm.

    • The work units in which they will be working.

    • The firm’s policies and procedures.

    • The firm’s organizational culture.



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Performance Appraisal

The identification, measurement, and management of human performance in organizations.


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Why Conduct Performance Appraisals?

  • Make decisions about that person's future with the organization

  • Identify training requirements

  • Employee improvement

  • Pay, promotion, and other personnel decisions

  • Research

  • Validation of selection techniques and criteria


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A Model of Performance Appraisal

Skills/Activities/Output

Performance Appraisal System

Reward/Training/Punishment


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Techniques for Evaluating Managers

  • Evaluation by superiors

  • Evaluation by colleagues

    • Peer ratings tend to be more favorable for career development than for promotion decisions

  • Self‑evaluation

    • Self‑ratings suffer from leniency

  • Subordinate evaluation

    • Effective in developing leadership

    • Leads to improved performance

  • 360 degree feedback (multi‑source)


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360° Feedback

The combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review


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Key Steps in Implementing 360° Appraisal

  • Top management communicates the goals

  • Employees and managers are involved in the development of the appraisal criteria and process.

  • Employees are trained in giving & receiving feedback.

  • Employees are informed of the nature of the 360° appraisal instrument and process.

  • The 360° system undergoes pilot testing

  • Management continuously reinforces the goals of the 360° appraisal and is ready to change the process when necessary.



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Relative and Absolute Judgment

Relative Judgment

An appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an employee's performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job.

Absolute Judgment

An appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments about an employee’s performance based solely on performance standards.


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Rating Methods

  • Performance rating scales

    Supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses a relevant job characteristic

  • Ranking technique

    Supervisors list the workers in order from highest to lowest

  • Paired‑comparison technique

    Compares the performance of each worker with that of every other person in the group

  • Forced choice technique

    Raters are presented with groups of descriptive statements and are asked to select the phrase in each group that is most descriptive of the worker being evaluated


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Rating Methods

  • Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

    • Appraisers rate critical employee behavior

    • Critical‑incident behaviors are established

    • These behaviors are used as standards for appraising effectiveness

    • The BARS items can be scored objectively by indicating whether the employee displays that behavior

  • Behavioral observation scales (BOS)

    • Appraisers rate the frequency of critical employee behaviors

    • The ratings are assigned on a five point scale

    • The evaluation yields a total score

  • Management by objectives (MBO)




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Concept of Organizational Change

Defined as adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization.

Organizations need to continuously adapt to new situations if they are to survive and prosper


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Organizational

Change

Planned and Unplanned Organizational Changes

  • Planned Changes

  • Changes in products and services

  • Changes in administrative systems

  • Changes in organizational size or structure

  • Introduction of new technologies

  • Advances in information processing and communication

  • Unplanned Changes

  • Changing employee demographics

  • Performance gaps

  • Governmental regulations

  • Economic competition in the global arena


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Workforce

World

Politics

Technology

Forces For

Change

Social

Trends

Economic

Shocks

Competition


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Resistance to Change - Forms

  • Overt and immediate

    • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions

  • Implicit and deferred

    • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism


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Selective

Information

Processing

Force of

Habit

Individual

Fear of

the Unknown

Need for

Security

Economic

Factors

Resistance to Change


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Structural &

Group Inertia

Threat to establish

resource allocation

Organization

Limited Focus

Threat to Expertise

Threat to establish

power relationship

Resistance to Change


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Overcoming

Resistance to Change

Education and

Communication

Participation

Negotiation

Facilitation

and Support

Manipulation

and Cooptation

Coercion


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Lewin’s Three-Step Process

Organizational Change

Changing

Refreezing

Unfreezing


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Driving

Forces

Unfreezing the Status Quo

Desired

State

Restraining

Forces

Status

Quo

Time


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Definition of OD

OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory.


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Organization Development is...

a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness.


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Organizational Development - The Premises

  • Respect for people

  • Trust and support

  • Power equalization

  • Confrontation

  • Participation


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OD Process

Evaluation

Diagnosis

Intervention

.


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OD Interventions

  • Intergroup development

  • Process consultation

  • Sensitivity training

  • Third Party Intervention

  • Survey feedback

  • Team building

  • Culture Change


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Manager Development

  • On the Job Training

    • Planned Progression

    • Job Rotation

    • Creation of “assistant-to”

    • Temporary promotion

    • Committees

  • Off the Job

    • Training

    • Conference

    • MDPs

    • Business Simulations



Sources of conflict
Sources of Conflict

  • Competition for scarce resources

  • Time pressure

  • Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or procedures

  • Communication breakdowns

  • Personality clashes

  • Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions

  • Unrealized expectations


Managing conflicts
Managing Conflicts

  • Avoidance

  • Problem solving

  • Compromise

  • Forcing

  • Smoothing

  • Structural change