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Massively Multiplexed Integral Field Surveys with Hexabundles and FIREBALL. Scott Croom. Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA) University of Sydney. The FIREBALL Team.
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Massively Multiplexed Integral Field Surveys with Hexabundles and FIREBALL Scott Croom Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA) University of Sydney.
The FIREBALL Team • innoFSPEC (UP/AIP):M.M Roth (PI), A. Kelz, R. Haynes, W. Rambold, J.C. Olaya, P. Weilbacher, O. Streicher, C. Sandin, E. Popow, S.M. Bauer, F. Dionies, J. Paschke, T. Hahn, T.Fechner, L. Wisotzki, J. Walcher • Australian Astronomical Obsevatory: G. Monnet, P. Xavier, M. Colless, G. Smith, P. Gillingham, S. Mizirski, S. Case, T. Farrell, L. Gers • Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL): R. Bacon, A. Remillieux, J. Kosmalski, M. Loupias, E. Pecontal, P. Caillier, A. Pecontal, F. Laurent, L. Capoani, M. Loupias. • Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen (IAG): S. Dreizler, H. Nicklas, A.Fleischmann, C.Köhler, • University of Sydney: S. Croom, G. Robertson, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Bryant. • Universitat Bonn (UBN): M. Kowalski, K. Reif, C. Buton, K. Paech, M. Kerschhaggl, H. Poschmann, M. Polder • Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (INPL): Y. Copin, E. Gangler, G. Smadja, R. Pereira • Laboratoire de Physique Nuceaire et des Hautes Energies, Paris (LPNHE): S. Bongard, R. Pain, J. Guy.
Outline • Single fibre surveys: successes and limitations. • Current IFU surveys. • MOS IFU using Hexabundles. • The FIREBALL concept on the VLT.
2dFGRS and SDSS • Redshifts: • LSS & Cosmology • Luminosities • Environmental measurements, groups etc. • Spectra: • Star formation rates • Stellar population ages and metallicities • Velocity dispersion • Gas phase metallicity • Extinction • AGN content • …
The blue cloud and red sequence SDSS: Blanton et al. (2006)
Stellar mass vs. Dark Matter (by Ωb/ΩDM ) Baldry et al. (2008)
SF and environment • Clear quantification of the suppression of SF in high density regions (e.g. Lewis et al. 2002). • Consistent with (but does not explain) the well known morphology-density relation. • When/where does the processing happen? “Group pre-processing?” • What is the mechanism? Ram-pressure stripping? Strangulation? • Relative impact of feedback and environment? Lewis et al (2002)
AGN Late type early type Kauffmann et al. (2003)
Dissecting AGN hosts z=0.06 AGN host. Target for 10B SPIRAL (square grid) program on AAT. Kauffmann et al. (2005)
Dissecting AGN hosts z=0.06 AGN host. Target for 10B SPIRAL (square grid) program on AAT. SDSS fibre Kauffmann et al. (2005)
Current IFU surveys: SAURON • Early type galaxies separated into fast and slow rotators. • Classified using λR parameter: projected stellar angular momentum per unit mass. • Slow rotators tend to have kinematically decoupled cores, suggesting dissipationless mergers are important. • Do slow rotators exist in environments more conducive to mergers? • How do these trends depend on halo and/or stellar mass? • See Roger Davies’ talk fast slow Emsellem et al. (2007).
Disks vs mergers at high & low z • Dynamical disturbance as a probe of merging. • Probes a different phase compared to close pairs. • Analysis of luminous z~2 galaxies with SINFONI on VLT shows both quiescent disks and major mergers. • See many of yesterday’s talks. Merger Disk e.g. Shapiro et al. (2008)
Hexabundles • Can we combine the advantages of IFUs with existing positioning technology? • Conventional wisdom: fibre cladding needs to be at least 10 in thickness, and is typically much larger. • However, it only needs to be 2 over short fuse distances (Bland-Hawthorn+ 09).
Hexabundles • Fibres that can use existing (e.g. robotic) positioning technology, but with multiple cores. • 1x91 manufactured, 1x397 should not be a problem. • Expect excellent photometric qualities. 1x61 1x19 selective illumination Bland-Hawthorn et al. (2008)
Hexabundles 1x61 Unfused: these have better FRD performance, 88% fill fraction (Bryant+ 2010) Bland-Hawthorn et al. (2008)
FIREBALL FLAMES facility on VLT: 25’ f-o-v OzPoz positioner by AAO Currently: 132 fibers to GIRAFFE, including 15x20 element IFUs. FIREBALL: Many possible combinations – fundamentally scalable. 50 1x121 hexabundles. 90 1x61 hexabundles… Fed to 6 MUSE-style spectrographs (or more!). R~1500-3600, λ=465-930nm. 0.5” cores: 6.0” ø f-o-v. (121 core hexabundle). MUSE: See Roth and Wisotzki talks.
Science drivers • Build up of mass and angular momentum in galaxies. • Mergers and interacting galaxies. • Where does star formation happen? • Winds and outflows. • Abundance gradients. • Mapping extinction and reddening. • AGN fraction, triggering, connection to star formation. • Primordial tidal field. • Fixing the biases in single fibre spectroscopy. • +….
Where does star formation happen? • Photometric analysis (pixel-z) suggests radial variations in SF are a function of environment (Welikala et al. 2009). • Test the impact of harassment, ram pressure, feedback...
Stripping and strangulation: simulations Kapferer et al (2009)
Stripping and strangulation: simulations Bekki (2009) Kapferer et al (2009)
A strawman FIREBALL survey: z~0.1-0.2 • ~10,000 galaxies. • rAB<19.5-20. • Hexabundle radius of 7.5kpc at z=0.15. • 2-4 hours per field. • 60-120 clear nights of VLT time.
Summary • 2dFGRS, SDSS, 6dFGS etc have provided a revolution in our understanding of galaxy properties. • But they miss vital information (and have biases in the information they do contain). • Technology is now available to move to MOS IFU surveys. • FIREBALL would be a revolutionary instrument for galaxy evolution studies.