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Programme of next practicals. April 17th Revision practical + Microscopic structure of the heart and blood vessels . April 24th Blood cells: Cytology of formed elements of blood. Hematopoiesis – demonstration of developmental stages.

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programme of next practicals
Programme of next practicals
  • April 17th

Revision practical + Microscopic structure of the heart and blood vessels.

  • April 24th

Blood cells: Cytology of formed elements of blood. Hematopoiesis– demonstration of developmental stages.

Repetition test II (Epithelial tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.)

  • May 1st, May 8th - Holiday
general histology repetition
General histology: Repetition

Tissue types

  • Connective and supporting (+blood)
  • Epithelial
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
connective tissue
Connective tissue

developed from mesenchyme

consists of:

  • cells
  • intercellular matrix:
  • amorphous ground substance
  • fibers
  • connective tissue proper
  • specialized connective (supporting) tissue:




  • mechanical (cartilage, bone)
  • nutritional (intercellular substance)
  • defensive (cells: histiocytes, plasma cells, leukocytes – immunocompetence, production of antibodies)
connective tissue proper
Connective tissue proper
  • mucous (jelly-like)
  • loose collagenous (areolar)
  • dense collagenous (regular, irregular)
  • reticular
  • elastic
  • adipose tissue (white, brown)
connective tissue proper1
Connective tissue proper

Mucous (jelly-like) connective tissue


composed of cells (chondrocytes) and intercellular matrix: fibers and amorphous substance (chondrocytes present in lacunae within the matrix)


  • collagenous only
  • combination of collagenous and elastic

cartilage is nonvascular, without nerves

perichondrium – dense irregular connective tissue on the surface: important for growth and nutrition of cartilage

Classification according to the kind and amount of fibers:

    • hyaline cartilage
    • elastic cartilage
    • fibrocartilage
  • Cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteoprogenitor cells
  • Intercellular matrix: collagenous fibers (type I), amorphous substance, inorganic salts
  • Macroscopically - 2 types: compact (dense) and spongy (cancelous)
  • Microscopically – 2 types according to the organisation of intercellular substance: woven (nonlamellar) and Haversian (lamellar)
epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue

Classification on the structural basis (arrangement of cells):

  • membranes – cells form sheets – the most common type, including most exocrine glands
  • trabecular – cells are arranged into anastomosing trabeculae – liver, endocrine glands
  • reticular – stellate cells form a network – thymus

Classification on the basis of function :

  • Covering (lining) epithelia – epithelial membranes
  • Glandular epithelium
  • Absorptive epithelium – enterocytes (intestine)
  • Respiratory epithelium – pneumocytes (lung)
  • Sensory epithelium – olfactory ep., taste buds
  • Myoepithelial cells (exocrine glands, m. dilatator pupillae)
covering epithelia epithelial membranes4
Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes)
  • Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
covering epithelia epithelial membranes5
Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes)
  • Stratified squamous keratinized
glandular epithelium
Glandular epithelium

Unicellular glands

Goblet cells Paneth cells

glandular epithelium multicellular glands ducts and secretory portions acini tubules
Glandular epitheliummulticellular glands – ducts and secretory portions (acini, tubules)
glandular epithelium1
Glandular epithelium
  • Multicellular glands – serous acini and mucous tubules
muscle tissue
Muscle tissue

Morphological unit of:

  • Skeletal muscle

cell is called muscle fiber – rhabdomyocyte (multinucleated, nuclei at periphery)

myofibrils are structures inside the cell, consist of myofilaments (actin, myosin)

  • Cardiac muscle

cell – cardiomyocyte (uninucleated, nucleus centrally)

myofibrils, intercallated discs

  • Smooth muscle

cell – leiomyocyte (uninucleated, nucleus centrally)

no myofibrils, only myofilaments

nervous tissue
Nervous tissue


  • CNS (central nervous system): brain, spinal cord
  • PNS (peripheral nervous system): nerves, ganglia

Histologically it consists of 2 principal cell types:

  • nerve cells (neurons) – excitability (irritability) and conductivity
  • supporting cells (neuroglia)