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Forestry Basics. Carey Entz Lycoming County Conservation District Watershed Specialist. What a Tree Needs To Grow. Parts of the Tree. Growth of the Tree. Each year the tree grows two new layers

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forestry basics

Forestry Basics

Carey Entz

Lycoming County Conservation District

Watershed Specialist

growth of the tree
Growth of the Tree
  • Each year the tree grows two new layers
  • Springwood: The layer formed in the spring by the cambium, grows fast and looks light in color.
  • Summerwood: The layer formed in the summer, grows slower and the cells are smaller so the layer is much darker in color.
what the rings can tell you
What the Rings can Tell You
  • By counting the dark rings you call tell the age of the tree.
  • The annual rings can also tell you what happened during the trees life.
  • The size and shapes of the rings indicate:

Soil moisture and fertility, weather, fire, overcrowding and insect attacks

forest succession
Forest Succession
  • Forests are always growing and changing!
  • Succession: is when some trees replace or succeed, other trees in the same place.
  • 3 Main Layers within a Forest:
    • Canopy or Overstory- Large Trees above the forest floor
    • Understory- Small Trees and bushes under the Canopy
    • Forest Floor- Shrubs, wildflowers, and shade tolerant plants
  • This change may come slowly with old age or suddenly after fire or windstorm; but succession never stops.
forest communities
Forest Communities
  • There are two Principal Forest Types in PA
  • In the North:
    • Birch, Beech, Maple, Hemlock Forests
  • In the South:
    • Oak, Chestnut and Yellow Poplar Forests

Do You Know What PA State Tree is?

forest resources

Forest Resources






forest resources trees1
Forest Resources: Trees
  • Common Wood Products:
    • Paper, Pencils, Bats, Rackets, and Power poles
  • Not So Common Uses:
    • Film, Tires, Aspirin, Toothpaste, and Cattle Feed.
forest resources trees2
Forest Resources: Trees
  • There are nearly 700 species of trees in the US Forests, but only 100 species are used in the products we use regularly.
  • 40 are Softwoods (Pine, Hemlock, Cedar)
    • Used for lumber, plywood and paper
  • 60 are Hardwoods (Cherry, Oak, Maple)
    • Used for furniture, flooring, and paneling
forest resources water
Forest Resources: Water
  • Forest lands are prime sources for of water!
  • Trees transpire or give water off through their leaves. Remember the Water Cycle?
  • The forest cover can control the amount of water released and quality of water to the near by waterways.
  • The forest cover also provides shade to streams. Cold water is important to fish.
forest resources wildlife
Forest Resources: Wildlife
  • Forest and woods are homes to many kinds of animals- Large and Small.
  • Three basics to habitat: Food, Water, Shelter
  • Each stage of forest succession favors certain animals.
  • Through proper management you can create quality habitat for a large numbers of wildlife species within the same forest.
forest resources forage
Forest Resources: Forage
  • Edible plants (forage) are forest resources just as trees are.
  • Forage includes grasses, and buds, shoots, and leaves of woody plants, and herbs that can be eaten by livestock or wildlife.
forest resources recreation
Forest Resources: Recreation
  • The state forest system was first established in 1898 for the purpose of providing a continuous supply of wood products, protecting watersheds, and providing opportunities for outdoor recreation
  • Today, the state forest comprises over 2.1 million acres and accounts for 12 percent of the forested area in the Commonwealth.
  • Pennsylvania's state forest represents one of the largest expanses of public forest land in the eastern United States, making it a truly priceless public asset.
forest management

Forest Management

Silviculture and other

Best Management Practices

  • What is Silviculture?
    • Silvicutlture is the planting, growing, tending, and harvesting stands of trees.
    • Silviculture Systems are methods used to maintain vigor, desired composition, health and structure in terms of age, species, and size class.
how to choose a silviculture system
How to Choose a Silviculture System
  • When evaluating the site the forester considers all the physical, chemical, climatic, and biological features of an area that influence the forest regeneration and growth.
  • Other factors are the sensitivity to an area to soil compaction, erosion, and stream sedimentation.
intermediate treatments
Intermediate Treatments
  • Intermediate treatments are done when the forest is still growing to economic and biological maturity
  • The residual stand will be able to resond to the increased light, water and nutrients to reduce competetion.
  • Examples: Cleanings, Thinning, and Improvement Cuts
regeneration methods
Regeneration Methods
  • The goal of the regen. methods are to re-establish a healthy forest.
  • Single tree or group method: Mimics blow downs. Utilizes diameter-limited cut or high grade cutting.
  • Shelterwood and Clear-cut: Mimics wildfire or tornados.
    • Shelterwood: leaves the trees until regeneration is well established.
    • Clear-cutting: The best way to for regen. of black cherry, aspen and poplar because they need full sunlight their entire life.
other best management practices bmp

Other Best Management Practices (BMP)



Planting Seedlings

Seeding a Forest

Gathering Seeds

Improving Trees

bmp fire
BMP: Fire
  • Prescribed Burning is sometime used, especially in pine forests.
  • The fire exsposes the soil, releases nutients into the soil, eliminates some insects and disease and removes undesirable trees and bush.
  • Fire can be as important to in manageing Wildlife as it is in managing timber and controlling other vegetation.
bmp fertilizers
BMP: Fertilizers
  • Fertilizers can be added to the soil.
  • The nutrients are added to the forest soil and picked up through the plant roots.
  • These healthy trees grow much faster than others.
bmp planting seedlings
BMP: Planting Seedlings
  • After harvesting a forester may deside to plant seedlings.
  • Natural seeding may take several years, while planting will speed up the process.
  • Attention should be given to the species of seedlings for timber harvest, watershed protection, recreation and wildlife habitat.
bmp gathering seeds
BMP: Gathering Seeds
  • Pine trees are the easiest to gather seed from.
  • The pine cones ripen in the fall. The cone dries and the seeds will fall out.
  • The seeds need to be kept in a cool, dry place.
  • They go through a dormate period during the winter.
  • The seeds are then ready to germinate in the spring.
bmp improving trees
BMP: Improving Trees
  • Foresters are now using genetic improvement to get better trees.
  • They gather seed from superior trees.
  • They also may artificially pollinate tree to develop superior tree families.
enemies of the forest

Enemies of the Forest

Wildfires and Insects

enemies of the forest wildfires
Enemies of the Forest: Wildfires
  • Nearly 9 out of 10 wildfires are started by careless people.
  • Only 1 of 10 are caused by lightning!
  • Crown fires can spread over many miles with the right weather and topography of the land.
  • Help Prevent Forest Fires!
enemies of the forest insect1
Enemies of the Forest: Insect


Woolly Adelgid

enemies of the forest insect3
Enemies of the Forest: Insect

Asian Longhorn Beetle

2009 envirothon forestry resources

2009 Envirothon Forestry Resources