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Chapter 10. Review and Discussion. Invasions of Europe, 700–1000. More invaders Northmen: Norwegians, Swedes and Dane and Magyars. The Early Middle Ages. Rome Disappears Trade Slows Towns Empty Learning Ceases. Western Europe from 500 until 800 C.E. Roman law

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Review and Discussion

Invasions of Europe, 700–1000

More invaders Northmen: Norwegians, Swedes and Dane and Magyars.

the early middle ages
The Early Middle Ages
  • Rome Disappears
    • Trade Slows
    • Towns Empty
    • Learning Ceases
western europe from 500 until 800 c e
Western Europe from 500 until 800 C.E.
  • Roman law
    • was replaced with laws practiced by Germanic peoples.
  • Economy
    • The economy was transformed as cities and urban areas declined.
    • use of currency as a medium of exchange became far less common.
  • Germanic decentralization
    • created a need for local self-sufficiency.
    • That need helped create the self-contained manor, with its corresponding political, economic, and social organization.
how did feudalism begin
How did Feudalism begin?
  • People joined together to work against common problems.
  • Problems included:
    • Foreign invaders (Vikings)
    • lack of currency
    • lack of trade
    • food shortages.
within the feudal system
Within the Feudal system…
  • There were many smaller feudal states
  • Usually they were located around a castle (a Keep) or church.
  • Consisted of:
    • Farmers
    • Laborers
    • Craftsmen
the feudal system classes
The Feudal System Classes
  • As a self-sufficient state (meaning there was little trade with outsiders), a culture developed within the feudal states.
  • Four (4) main classes developed:
    • Lords/Ladies
    • Lesser Lords (vassals)
    • Knights
    • Serfs/Peasants
feudal system
Feudal System
  • Need for protection and lack of central government created the feudal system
  • Under the feudal system, every person had obligations to a superior  
  • Every person had a duty to someone else.  
the lord and lady
The Lord and Lady
  • Were rulers of their small feudal state, and gave allegiance to the monarch.
  • Lived in a castle, which also served as a fortress for that feudal state.
  • Protected the serfs with their army of knights.
  • Arranged marriages, and male heirs were desired, since the estate went to the oldest son.
  • This was not necessarily easy, many children died before the age of 15 due to disease or accidents.
lesser lords vassals
Lesser Lords (Vassals)
  • Lord divided his larger landholdings among Vassals
  • In return the Vassals pledged service to the Lord
  • Agreed to provide the lord with:
    • 40 days of military service each year
    • Money
    • Advice
  • Were members of the feudal army.
  • One job: Protect the state, and the lord and lady in charge of it.
  • They had many different weapons:
    • Mace (club)
    • Morning Star (spiked mace)
    • War Hammer
    • Battle Ax
    • Daggers
    • Lances (used more often in tournaments)
  • Like the middle class here, serfs were the vast majority in the feudal states, but they were poorer.
  • They were not slaves, but were farmers who owed some of their production to the feudal state.
  • In return, they received protection from the knights.
medieval homes
Medieval Homes
  • Most medieval homes were cold, damp, and dark.
  • For security purposes, windows, when they were present, were very small openings with wooden shutters that were closed at night or in bad weather.
  • Many peasant families ate, slept, and spent time together in very small quarters, rarely more than one or two rooms.
charlemagne 800 ce the father of europe
Charlemagne: 800 CEThe Father of Europe
  • Charlemagne tried to create a united Christian Europe.
  • Try to revived Latin learning in his empire and strived to create a “second Rome.”
  • Established a central government over Western Europe (forerunner to the Holy Roman Empire)
then charlemagne dies
Then Charlemagne Dies
  • His son Louis the Pious rules until his death and then the Empire is divided into three parts by the Treaty of Verdun (843).
  • Muslims claim the “Holy Land” and Mediterranean islands like Corsica and Sicily
  • Coronation of Otto I (Great) in 962
    • Officially recognized as Holy Roman Empire
    • Lasted until 1806
  • Western Europe secured its borders against invaders and grew economically
  • 1066-Vikings also settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in.
  • 1076- Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV
  • 1096- Christians launch first crusade
  • 1215-King John signs the Magna Carta
  • 1226- Louis IX becomes King of France
  • 1347- Black Death breaks out in Italy
  • 1429- Joan of Arc leads French armies against the English
  • 1492- Spanish complete Reconquista
the magna carta
The Magna Carta
  • Many Kings in England around the 10th - 12th centuries were abusing their power and highly taxing their nobles.
  • In 1215 King John angered his nobles so much that they forcibly made John sign a document called the Magna Carta (or Great Charter)
  • Contained two basic ideas that would shape English govt.
    • Nobles had certain rights (later this was extended to all citizens)
    • Made clear that the monarch must obey the law.
modern liberties founded in the magna carta
Modern Liberties Founded in the Magna Carta
  • Taxation only with representation
  • -no unusual taxes accept by agreement of people’s representatives
  • Right to trial
  • -trial to be proven guilty by peers
  • Limits to royal power
  • English subjects had certain liberties
  • power was shared between the king and the people’s representatives in the Great Council
  • Parliament developed into a 2 house body
    • House of Lords -nobles and clergy
    • House of Commons -knights and middle class
conflicts between rulers and emperors
Conflicts between rulers and Emperors
  • Many German emperors tried to become more powerful than the pope.
  • This cause the pope to sometimes send an interdict- a whole community would be excommunicated from the church.
  • Many rulers gave into this pressure.
logic vs faith the rivalry
Logic vs Faith…The rivalry
  • Aristotle= Use Logic to find out the Truth
  • Church= Use Faith to find out the truth
  • Others found a way to merge the 2 together

It is called “Scholasticism”

how did the development of the byzantine empire differ from the development of western europe
How did the development of the Byzantine Empire differ from the development of western Europe?
  • The Byzantine Empire
    • was the direct descendant of Roman imperial rule and tradition.
    • centralized control whereas western European institutions were decentralized.
  • The Byzantine emperors
    • exercised caesaropapism, which combined supreme secular and religious power in one person Foreign threats
    • Byzantium was directly threatened by foreign invaders, especially the Iranian Sasanid Empire (4th to 7th century) and ultimately by Muslim expansion.
  • The Byzantine Empire shrank steadily until Constantinople itself was captured by the Ottomans in 1453.
Sum it up:Justinian’s Achievements
  • Recapture Roman Lands
  • Architecture
  • Hagia Sophia
  • Bridges
  • Civil Law Code: influenced civil law in the west

Procopius: Secret History: Justinian

roman christianity
Roman Christianity
  • Pope controlled Church affairs
  • People accepted pope’s claim to authority over all Christians
  • Clergy prohibited from marrying
  • Latin was language of the Church
christianity in east and west great schism
Christianity in East and West: Great Schism
  • 1054 – Differences between east and west provoked a schism, or permanent split, between the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Disagreed on
    • Sacrament of communion, priest should marry, local language, nature of god (trinity), placement of icons
the crusades 1096 1099
The Crusades (1096-1099)
  • Muslims conquered the Holy land. (Jerusalem)
  • Pope Urban II called nobles to action against the Muslims: “ An accursed race… has violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire.” After he said this he called for a crusade or Holy war to take back the Holy land.
  • Soon thousands of knights were on their way to The Holy Land.
  • On their tunics and shields they sewed crosses
  • Why did so many “take up the cross?”
    • Religious reasons
    • Knights hoped to win wealth and land
    • adventure and to get away from home struggles
fourth crusade 1202 1204
Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204
  • Pope Innocent III called for the crusade
  • Few reached the Holy Lands most attacked Constantinople
  • After 200 years of fighting, the Holy Land was again Muslim control!
children s crusade 1212
Children’s Crusade, 1212
  • 30,000 French and German children set out to save Jerusalem!
  • Sadly, most die or are sold in slavery by evil merchants!
impact of the crusades
Impact of the Crusades
  • The Crusades failed in their chief goal- reclaiming the holy lands.
  • Both Christians and Muslims committed appalling acts in the name of religion.
  • Christians turned their fury against Jews, massacring entire communities.
  • Helped change Europe to more of a trading society. Western Europeans wanted the silk, spices and perfumes from the east.
  • Brought the power of the pope to its greatest height.
  • Encouraged a money society
  • Gave serfs more power because nobles needed rent MONEY instead of grain for pay