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Class 8: Anabaptists and English Reformation

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  1. Class 8: Anabaptists and English Reformation 5 February2014

  2. Introduction • Anabaptists and English Reformation are really ‘bookends’ of reformation • Anabaptists known as ‘Radical Reformers’ • English Reformation leads to Anglicanism, most like Catholicism

  3. Beginnings of Anabaptists • 14th C ancestor was Brethren of Common Life • In 16th C a collection of many small splinter groups in Switzerland and Germany • Started in Zurich first as supporters of Zwingli and then moved beyond him • Initial issue was infant baptism • Luther, Zwinlgi and Calvin accepted it • Anabaptist reject infant Baptism, require converts to be re-baptized • The rejection of infant Baptism also included rejection of Church as a society into which one is born • Reject notion of one Church, • No creedal statements • Seen as posing a radical threat to all other Churches and political systems

  4. Anabaptist Separation from State • Individual Christian in relation to God with only Scripture as a guide • Rejection of liturgy, images • Formed a ‘state within a state’; rejected normal obligations of citizenship: taxes, military service • Separation of small communities of true Church and State • Exclusivists communities • As a result, persecuted by all: Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinists

  5. Anabaptists ‘beliefs’ • Rejected infant baptism; sacraments in general • Rejected true presence in Eucharist • Iconoclasts • Sometimes described as Spiritualists • God does not work through material signs • Only radical in-breaking of Spirit into a person’s soul leads to salvation • “me and Jesus” • Anticlerical; radical belief in priesthood of all believers • Recall Luther required training for Pastors • Calvin wrote massive Institutes

  6. Schleitheim Articles 1527 • Written at a meeting of non-Lutheran, non-Zwingli Protestants in Swiss town of Schleitheim • Only two classes of people: good and bad • Shepherd is anyone who is godly • Radical separation of believers from world • Some groups today that trace to Anabaptists: Baptists, Mennonites, Amish, (Quakers)

  7. Reformation in England: opposition to Luther and Calvin • Henry VIII initially opposes Luther, remains faithful to Rome • Cardinal Wolsey excommunicates Luther and burns his books, 1521 • Thomas More leads intellectual attack against Luther in England

  8. The King’s Great Matter • Henry married Catherine of Spain in 1509 (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, aunt of HRE Charles V) • Marriage yields no male heir; only Mary Tudor survives childhood • Pope Clement VII refuses to annul marriage • Note the request comes just after Charles V had sacked Rome and Clement not eager to further provoke Charles • Angry that Wolsey could not convince Pope to allow an annulment; Henry replaces Wolsey with More as Chancellor of England • Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn in 1533 • Henry declares himself head of Church in England 1534 with Act of Supremacy; • Thomas More and others executed 1535 for refusing to give allegiance to Henry as head of Church

  9. Anglican Doctrine • Very little doctrinal disagreement between Henry VIII and Rome • Seven Sacraments, infant baptism accepted • Real Presence in Eucharist (transubstantiation) • Retain much of Catholic liturgical elements • Retain notion of apostolic succession, but now through archbishop of Canterbury • Priestly celibacy continued until Henry VIII’s successor, Edward VI

  10. Edward VI (1537-1553) • Only surviving son of Henry VIII; mother was Jane Seymour • Becomes kind at age 9; dies at 15 • Edward moves Church of England toward a more Protestant, less Catholic position • Thomas Canmer, Archbishop of Canterbury • Abolish priestly celibacy, liturgy in English • Book of Common Prayer

  11. After Henry VIII and Edward VI: Mary Tudor • Mary was the only child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon • Because no male heir after Edward, Mary becomes queen as eldest daughter in 1553 • Mary devoutly Catholic • Marries Phillip II of Spain, son of Charles V • English Protestants were persecuted, many executed; “Bloody Mary” • Mary died 1558; her half sister Elizabeth becomes queen • Protestantism restored

  12. Queen Elizabeth I • Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn • Re-establishes Protestantism as official religion of England • Act of Supremacy of 1559 recognized Elizabeth as head of Church in England • But does not execute Catholics • Statement of beliefs in Thirty Nine Articles • Tried to be a middle way between Catholic doctrine, liturgy and evangelical Protestantism • Example: denied transubstantiation; accepted real presence • Some Protestants did not accept this; • Known as “Puritans” who wanted a pure church • Also, wanted radical acceptance of priesthood of all believers, known as Presbyterians; led by John Knox who had studied in Geneva while Mary Tudor reigned

  13. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1542-1587)Not to be confused with Mary Tudor • Only child of James V of Scotland; • As great-grand daughter of Henry VII, also had strong claims to English throne after Mary Tudor’s death (Elizabeth being considered illegitimate, at least in Catholic circles) • Succeeded her father to throne at a very young age • Raised in France; married Francois II (son of Henry II) • While in France, England seizes Scotland • Elizabeth encourages growing puritan movement in Scotland and Presbyterians evangelize Catholics there • Mary returns to Scotland after the death of Francois II; is captured and imprisoned by Elizabeth • After 19 years, executed over Catholic plots to overthrow Elizabeth. • However, Mary’s son (by a second marriage), James, succeeds Elizabeth in 1603 • James brought up as a Presbyterian in Scotland while his mother is in prison • Strong belief in divine right of kings

  14. Models of Church-State Development • Catholic: Two powers, but Pope over civil rulers • Lutheran: Civil rulers over Church (Romans 13) • Calvinists: Combined into one ruling body to form a holy community • Anglican: King head of Church and State • Anabaptists: Perfect congregation within broader evil society; witness to, but does not try to change broader society

  15. Assignments • 1. Schleitheim Confession of Faith 7.10in The European Reformations Sourcebook. ed Carter Lindberg. Malden: Blackwell, 2000. p. 132-133. • 2. Thirty Nine Article of Church of England. 12.21 in The European Reformations Sourcebook. ed Carter Lindberg. Malden: Blackwell, 2000. p 232-234. • Short Paper and Discussion Due on Friday