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Supervision, Change, and School Success. R. Martin Reardon’s summary of Chapter 21 Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2009), 323-336. Assumptions about Change. Fullan (1991): Assume…

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supervision change and school success

Supervision, Change, and School Success

R. Martin Reardon’s summary of Chapter 21

Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2009), 323-336

assumptions about change
Assumptions about Change

Fullan (1991): Assume…

  • that the main purpose of the implementation is to replace your reality with that of the implementers
  • that effective implementation is a process of clarification of ambiguity, ambivalence, uncertainty
  • conflict & disagreement are fundamental to successful change (“Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition”)
  • people need pressure to change, but in an environment which allows reaction, position taking, & interaction
  • effective change takes time: specific 2-3 yrs; organizational 5- yrs

Chapter 21: 11 slides

assumptions about change ii
Assumptions about Change (ii)
  • Fullan (1991) (cont.) Assume…
  • there are a number of possible reasons for lack of implementation: value rejection, inadequate resources, elapsed time too short
  • that progress occurs when we take steps that increase the number of people affected
  • that you will need a plan based on evolutionary planning & problem-coping models
  • that no amount of knowledge will ever make it totally clear what action should be taken
  • that changing the culture is the real agenda: every single innovation should contribute to developing the institution

Chapter 21: 11 slides

hall hord 1987 cbam http www nationalacademies org rise backg4a htm
Hall & Hord (1987): CBAM(

Typical Expressions of Concern about an Innovation

Chapter 21: 11 slides

chaos theory change
Chaos Theory & Change
  • Hidden order exists within chaotic systems
  • Self-organization emerges from chaos: Some thought-provoking ideas
    • Nonlinearity
      • Analogous to bowling, not dominoes
    • Complexity
      • Length of coast of Britain depends on length of the measuring tape
    • Butterfly Effect
      • “sensitive dependence on initial conditions”
      • Impossible to predict long-term outcome of chaotic system
    • Fractals
      • Self-similarity at different scales
    • Feedback Mechanisms
      • Outputs become inputs: evolution: “chaos with feedback”?
    • Turbulence
      • System instability (internal or external sources): can lead to phase transition: Ferdinand Marcos?
    • Strange Attractors
      • Chaos not truly random: “deeply encoded structures” as parameters

Chapter 21: 11 slides

chaos school change
Chaos & School Change
  • Traditional approach has been linear
    • Schools are nonlinear, chaotic systems
  • Better to have an organic process than a blueprint.
  • Complexity: None of the following can precisely measure improvement needs or level of success
    • Research on effective schools
    • Legislated standards
    • Standardized achievement tests
  • Butterfly Effect: Medium range (1-2 yrs), not long range planning (5-10 yrs)
    • Built-in flexibility, broad guidelines, general goals
    • Focus on process: producing a “stream of wise decisions”
  • Fractals: Self-similarity across interactions
    • Reflective inquiry at school, team, classroom, & individual levels
  • Feedback: Using assessment data to modify teaching
  • Turbulence: Some is essential for progress
    • Construct a normative consensus: These things we hold fast to in times of turbulence
  • Strange Attractors: Create permanent pattern leading to school achievement
    • Student-centered learning

Chapter 21: 11 slides

chaos at the classroom level
Chaos at the Classroom Level
  • The brain learns in nonlinear ways
    • Supports constructivist teaching & learning
  • Complexity: Student learning can take many different forms
    • Multiple measures of student learning: matching assessment to learning goals
  • Butterfly Effect: No lesson will every go completely as planned
    • Individual attention to connect with personal context of learning
  • Fractals: Patterns cut across class, small-group, & individual levels
    • Reflective inquiry into classroom practice: clinical model, peer coaching, walk-through model
  • Feedback: Seek to institute Schon’s “reflection in action”
    • Remove distinction between learning & assessment
  • Turbulence: Create disequilibrium in existing conceptual schemas
    • Support reconstruction
  • Strange Attractor: Student-centered learning (again)

Chapter 21: 11 slides

creating a culture for change
Creating a Culture for Change
  • Culture RESISTS change?
    • Some school cultures foster +ve change
    • Saphier & King (1985)
      • 12 cultural norms that foster school improvement

Chapter 21: 11 slides

what is success
What is success?

A matter for the local school to decide

  • Strive to educate all students well, in ways that are consistent with education in a democratic society

Chapter 21: 11 slides