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Integrating Composting Toilets within the Concept of an Eco-Beach

Integrating Composting Toilets within the Concept of an Eco-Beach

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Integrating Composting Toilets within the Concept of an Eco-Beach

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  1. Integrating Composting Toilets withinthe Concept of an Eco-Beach Richard Forbes - Physics Gemma Gotch - Chemistry Panagiotis Grigorakis – Electrical Engineering Judith Martyns-Yellowe – Environmental Engineering

  2. Overview • Background • Eco-Beach Concept • Project Objectives • Beach Classification • Feasibility of Wind & Solar • Composting Theory • ESP-r Model & Results • Composting Toilet Design • Environmental & Economic Impact • Conclusion

  3. Background • Waste on Beach - Mainly landfilled by local authorities - Estimated £585,000 spent on beach cleaning in 2006 • Facilities - Few toilets and kiosks (centralized) - Restricted locations

  4. Eco-Beach Concept = Education = Recycling Point = Kiosk = Composting Toilet = Transport = Access Route A framework that delivers a comprehensive approach to sustainable beach management Key:

  5. Project Objectives • Define Eco-Beach Concept • Develop a beach classification guide • Feasibility Study of Wind & Solar Energy • Design a composting toilet

  6. Beach Classification Guideline for determining requirements of an Eco-Beach. Category 1 Category 3 Category 2

  7. Beach Classification 2 Category 1: Remote Beach, South Harris Best Environmental option to leave beaches as they are. Category 2: Ayr Beach Composting Toilet, Recycling facilities, Access for disabled use, Educational notices. Category 3: St Andrew’s (West Sands) Composting Toilets, Recycling facilities, public transport service, Educational activities on the beach, sustainable kiosk possibility.

  8. Wind and Solar Power • Wind • PV • Good match with demand • Low intensity (and structures are small) • Solar Water Heating • Good match with demand

  9. Wind and Solar • Structures requiring power: Kiosk, Ice Cream Van, Toilet

  10. Supplying Cold Storage

  11. Composting Toilet Heat H2O CO2 Human Waste Finished Product O2 • Composting Process: • Heat produced can result in T ~ 70oC • Composting toilets don’t achieve this Composting Pile Micro Organisms

  12. Composting Toilets • Can high temperatures be achieved? • Insulation • Optimal conditions (moisture, C:N ratio, air flow) • Insulation requirements determined by dynamic modelling and experiments • Conditions controlled by features of overall design • Calorific Value ~ 25 MJ / kg

  13. Composting • Peak heating power ~ 84 W / kg

  14. ESP-r Model • Objective • Construction • 250W Gain – 3kg of faeces • Airflow – 36 m3/hr • Control – 55-70 °C • Insulation

  15. ESP-r Results • Mean temperature is 62 °C • Insulation → 10cm polystyrene Compost temperature Mean temperature Ambient Temperature

  16. Composting Toilet Design Key considerations in our design • Maintaining optimum conditions for a thermophillic process • Low energy toilet • Ease of maintenance • Multifunctional • A finished product that is safe to handle Achieving optimum conditions • Moisture control – Diverting and composting urine • Aeration – Ventilation and Exhaust powered by 10W PV panel • C:N ratio – Saw dust provides the carbon required to maintain a C:N ratio of 30:1 • Temperature – Insulating chamber with 10cm polystyrene boards • Design of a saw dust dispenser

  17. 0.40 0.10 Sawdust flusher 0.30 0.50 2.80 All dimensions in meters Dry urinals 1.80 1.70 Urine composter 1.00 0.05 1.30 1.00 2.00 2.00

  18. Benefits of the Eco-beach Concept Environment • Reduced energy consumption • Pollution and nutrification reduction • Re-use of waste, less use of landfills • Improved environmental & sustainability awareness

  19. Benefits (II) Socio-Economic • Enhanced tourism • More revenue for councils • Improved accessibility • Alternative uses for beach litter – waste becomes a resource • Cost of land filling waste is reduced considerably

  20. Limitations & Recommendations • Lack of accurate data from local councils • Experimental conditions • Design of an Eco centre for educational activities, café, shops which would be powered entirely by renewable supply • Comprehensive cost study of waste management on the beach • Consider other applications for the toilet such as festivals, construction sites • Sophisticated control system

  21. Conclusions • Defined the concept of the Eco beach • Beach classification model • Solar resource most suited for the beach - there are limitations • High temperature composting is possible without heaters • Toilet design

  22. Thank you for listening………… Any Questions?

  23. Food Human Waste Compost Toilet

  24. Energy, Chemicals Food Fresh Water Drinking Water Human Waste Foul Water Compost Water for discharge to sea Aerobic Digestion Sludge Contaminated Water Energy Anaerobic Digestion