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human waste introduction to composting toilets

Human Waste- Introduction to Composting Toilets

This training was prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) team of Otto Gonzalez-USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (Team Leader), Jon Fripp (Civil Engineer) and Chris Hoag (Wetland Plant Ecologist)-USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (Civil Engineers). Fripp and Hoag were the primary authors of this material. The U.S. AID provided funding support for the USDA team.

slide2

Human Waste or Manure is Dangerous

  • Human waste (fecal matter and urine) can contain dangerous pathogens
  • These pathogens can make people very sick
  • Adequate care must be taken with human waste to avoid contaminating food and drinking water
  • Adequate care can include a good latrine, waste treatment or composting

Photo from Cornell Waste Management Institute

slide3

Remember: Composting turns organic waste into good soil

  • Human waste or human manure can be composted.
  • But care must be taken
  • Human waste contains Nitrogen
  • Think of the human waste as the green material (the nitrogen) that we discussed earlier
  • Additional brown material (the carbon) must be added

Remember: Human waste can contain dangerous pathogens

Photo from Cornell Waste Management Institute

slide4

Two ways of Composting Human waste

1- Collect the human waste in a toilet receptacle and add it to a compost pile

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet structure

Photo from Cornell Waste Management Institute

Photo from Cornell Waste Management Institute

slide5

1- Collect the human waste in a toilet receptacle and add it to a compost pile

  • Can be as simple as a bucket collection
  • Start with dry leaves or waste hay or straw at the bottom of the bucket

Photo from weblife.org Humanure Handbook

slide6

1- Collect the human waste in a toilet receptacle and add it to a compost pile

After each use, add some saw dust or dry leaves.

slide7

1- Collect the human waste in a toilet receptacle and add it to a compost pile

  • When the bucket is full, add it to the center of the compost pile
  • Be sure it is well mixed and heats up to above 50 degrees centigrade
  • This temperature will kill most of the dangerous pathogens
slide8

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet

  • A two container compost toilet is most common
  • Human waste is deposited into one container.
  • Additional brown (carbon) material is added after each use
  • When the first container is full, the second is used.
  • No additional material is deposited into the first container

The material in the first container is allowed to turn into compost as the second is used

slide9

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet

Photo from WECF

Photo from WECF

Photo from weblife.org Humanure Handbook

The two bin type composting toilets have been used all over the world.

slide10

Human waste contains a lot of moisture.

  • This limits the ability of air to get into the mixture
  • The compost may not cook well
  • It is a good idea to provide drainage at the bottom
  • The drainage must go to a safe location (not allowed to go to drinking water)
  • It is also a good idea to provide for air flow by either turning the pile or using a screen
slide11

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet

  • Do not allow the material to leak out
  • Finish the floor of the compost toilet so that it is waterproof.
slide12

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet

  • A vent pipe will draw bad smells out
  • Vent only through the area that has the compost material

It should be painted black – this will help it to heat in the sun and pull the bad smells out of the compost toilet

slide13

2- Compost the human waste within the toilet

This bin is being used

This bin is not being used

  • Be sure that sufficient brown material (carbon) is added to the pile
  • Add brown material after each use

Photo from WECF

  • Do not allow the compost to get too moist
  • Do not allow the compost to get too dry
  • Stirring the compost will make it cook quicker
slide14

Summary: Using compost made with human waste

Compost made with human waste should be allowed to cook longer than compost made with regular organic waste (as discussed in the last presentation)

Allow the compost made with human waste to cook for a minimum of one year (2 years is best)

slide15

Summary: Using compost made with human waste

Compost made from Human waste can still be dangerous.

It must be kept away from drinking water and from touching crops that will be eaten by people

  • It is best to use the finished compost made from human waste for:
  • Ornamental gardens
  • Shade trees
  • Fruit trees

The compost should be buried under 30 cm of soil

slide16

Test Time

  • What is wrong in this picture?

This looks like a good privy or latrine

But

A two bin toilet will work better if you want to make compost from the human waste

Photo from John Moore

slide17

Test Time

  • What is wrong in this picture?

Two bin composting toilets need to be side by side

the end
The End

Remember: do not let compost from human waste to have contact with drinking water or food crops!