World War II1939-1945 U.S. History McDougall Littell text
Aggressors on the March Ch . 15 Section 4
Other countries fall to dictators • Poland • Hungary • Yugoslavia • Albania • Bulgaria1935: Czechoslovakia – only democracy in Eastern Europe • Authoritarian rule: only way to prevent instability.
League of Nations • As Germany and Italy moved toward military conquests, tired and distracted countries hoped the League of Nations would keep the peace.
Kellogg-Briand Pact • Japan signs pact, renouncing war • Parliamentary system is weak • Military reported only to the emperor
Government Blamed for Depression in 1930 • Military took control of the country. • Emperor made symbol of state power • Nationalists: solve economic problems through expansion . • Pacific empire included China.
Japan Invades Manchuria in 1931 • Rich in iron and coal • First direct challenge to League of Nations • No power to enforce decision • Japan withdrew from the League I 1933
Northern China falls to the Japanese in 1937 • The “rape” of Nanjing: Japanese troops killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians. • Jiang Jieshi retreats. • Mao continues to fight.
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia • League’s failure encourages Mussolini. • Complained Britain and France had left little for Italy in Africa • Ethiopian’s had successfully resisted Italian invasions before. • 1935 massive invasion
Britain and France do nothing • Hoping to keep the peace, Britain and France give in. • Italian troops and supplies go through British controlled Suez Canal
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty • Treaty limited size of German army. • The Fürer announced that Germany would not obey restrictions. • Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!
League fails to stop Germany, Hitler takes greater risks. • Treaty had forbidden German troops to enter a 30-mile wide zone on either side of the Rhine river. • March 7 1936 German troops marched into the Rhineland
Appeasement • French unwilling to risk war. • British urge giving in to keep the peace • Hitler later admitted that he would have backed down if challenged.
Turning Point • 1. Strengthened Hitler’s power and prestige. • Cautious generals now agreed to follow him. • 2. Balance of power changed • France and Belgium were open to attack • Hitler speeded up military and territorial expansion.
Axis Powers • Alliance: • Germany • Italy • Japan
Spanish Civil War • Monarchy until 1931 • Republic declared • 1936 – Fascists leaders revolt • Francisco Franco • Hitler and Mussolini help • Republicans received little help • Western democracies remained neutral. • Only Soviet union and international brigade of volunteers helped.
France and England • Tired of war • Economic depression
Isolationism • U.S. believed political ties should be avoided. • Determined to prevent mistake of entering another war. • Congress banned loans and sale of arms to nations at war.
Third Reich • Absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia • Expand into Poland and Russia
Sudetenland • Borderland in Czechoslovakia with German-speaking people.
Munich Conference • September 29, 1938 • Czechs not invited • Britain and France agreed Hitler could take Sudetenland. • Hitler pledged to respects Czechoslovakia’s new borders.
From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured before signing the Munich Agreement.
Churchill and Chamberlain Disagree • Chamberlain thought he had preserved the peace. • Winston Churchill warned of the consequences of appeasement
Six months later • Hitler takes Czechoslovakia • Mussolini takes Albania • Hitler demands Polish port of Danzig
Nonaggression Pact • August 23, 1939 Hitler and Stalin agreed never to attack each other.