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Lesson Ten. The Trial That Rocked the World. Objectives of Teaching. To comprehend the whole text To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences To understand the structure of the text To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

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Lesson Ten

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    1. LessonTen The Trial That Rocked the World

    2. Objectives of Teaching • To comprehend the whole text • To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions • To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences • To understand the structure of the text • To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

    3. III. Background Knowledge: • 1. Religions • God: the Deity, the Divinity, Holy One, Jehovah, the Lord, Providence, the Almighty, the Creator and etc. • There is only one God in heaven. But the belief in God has developed three religious sections: • Christianity, Judaism and Islam.

    4. III. Background Knowledge: • Christianity: • Roman Catholic • Protestant • Orthodox Eastern Church • Trinity: the Holy Father, the Holy Son and the Holy Spirit/Ghost, with Jesus Christ as its incarnation.

    5. III. Background Knowledge: • Bible: • Name of the Christian Scriptures, the Old Testament and the New Testament.  

    6. III. Background Knowledge: • Bible • Old Testament: Christian name for the Hebrew Bible, the first portion of the Christian Bible • Genesis: first book of the Old Testament which tells the origin of the world and of man 

    7. III. Background Knowledge: • Bible • New Testament: the distinctive Christian portion of the Bible • Gospel: Greek word for good news. the first four books of the New Testament.

    8. III. Background Knowledge: • Bible • fundamentalism: conservative religious movement. Its aim is to maintain word for word interpretations of the Bible. Nowadays this word can apply to other religions.

    9. III. Background Knowledge: • 2. American governing system • a. Legislature: parliament---Congress and Senate • b. Executive: the president and his administration • c. Judicial: the Federal Supreme Court

    10. III. Background Knowledge: • 3. Civil Law: • 4. Criminal Law • 5. Jury • 6. Counselor / Counsellor

    11. VI. Detailed Study: • 1. buzz: a noise of a low hum, low confused whisper • 2. sweltering: very hot, causing unpleasantness, torrid, sultry

    12. VI. Detailed Study: • 3. counsel: a group of one or more lawyers (barristers) acting for someone in a court of law • 4. prosecution: the act of bringing a criminal charge against sb. in a court of law

    13. VI. Detailed Study: • 5. silver-tongued: (lit.) able to give fine persuading speeches, eloquent  • 6. orator: a good public speaker, a person who delivers an oration (formal and solemn public speeches)

    14. VI. Detailed Study: • 7. nominee: a person who has been named officially for election to a position, office, honour, etc. • a Nobel Prize nominee / a presidential nominee

    15. VI. Detailed Study: • 8. bring about: cause • Scientists have brought about great changes in our lives.

    16. VI. Detailed Study: • 9. involve: to cause sb. to become connected or concerned • Don't involve other people in your mistakes. • We are all involved, whether we like it or not.

    17. VI. Detailed Study: • 10. testify: to make a solemn statement, esp. under oath in a court of law, of what is true • The witnesses testify / give evidence in the law court. • One witness testified that he had seen the prisoner ran out of the bank after it had been robbed.

    18. VI. Detailed Study: • 11. on hand: available, present, • cf: • within reach: the distance one can reach • at hand: near in time or place

    19. VI. Detailed Study: • Always have your dictionary on hand / within reach / at hand when you study. • Please be on hand at 12 sharp. • I have a great deal of important work on hand.

    20. VI. Detailed Study: • All his old friends will be on hand / present to see Jack receive the medal of honour. • I want you to be at hand / near during my interview with the boss of the company. • The post office is close at hand.

    21. VI. Detailed Study: • 12. reassure: comfort and make free from fear, stop worrying often by saying sth. kind or friendly • The doctor reassured the sick man about his health. • She won't believe it in spite of all our reassurance.

    22. VI. Detailed Study: • cf: assure: try to cause to believe or trust in sth.; promise • The captain assured the passengers that there was no danger.

    23. VI. Detailed Study: • 13. erupt: (of a volcano) to explode and pour out fire • Here, emerge, happen quickly, come down upon unexpectedly and violently; • I was suddenly engulfed by the whole affair.

    24. VI. Detailed Study: • 14. adhere to: to favour strongly, stick firmly to; • The wallpaper won't adhere to the ceiling. • They adhere to the contract.

    25. VI. Detailed Study: • He resolutely adhered to what he had said at the meeting. • adhere to the four cardinal / fundamental principles

    26. VI. Detailed Study: • 15. prohibit: to forbid, to ban • to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors / pornographic literature or video tapes / prostitution / visiting prostitutes / smoking in public places, etc.

    27. VI. Detailed Study: • cf: • FORBID is more direct and familiar, while PROHIBIT is more formal or official; they do not widely differ in their essential implications. • to forbid a child to leave the house

    28. VI. Detailed Study: • 16. violate: to disregard or act against sth. solemnly promised • The actress violated the terms of her contract. • This is considered as a violation of the Constitution. • If you violate someone's privacy or peace, you disturb it.

    29. VI. Detailed Study: • 17. legality: the condition of being lawful; lawfulness • The legality of this action will be decided by the court.

    30. VI. Detailed Study: • 18. indict: to indict sb. for a crime means to charge them with it officially • Five men were caught at the scene and indicted.

    31. VI. Detailed Study: • cf: • accuse, charge, prosecute, blame • One accuses sb. of cheating. • One charges sb. with cheating. • One prosecutes sb. for theft. • One blames sb. for the failure.

    32. VI. Detailed Study: • least of all: to an insignificant degree • Nobody need worry, you least of all/ least of all you. • Least of all would I lie to you. • Nobody seemed amused, least of all Jenny.

    33. VI. Detailed Study: • 19. anticipate: to expect what will happen • We are not anticipating that there will be much trouble. • We anticipate that the enemy would try to cross the river and so seize the bridge.

    34. VI. Detailed Study: • take on: begin to have (a particular quality, appearance, etc), assume sth. • He has taken on some irritating mannerism. • The chameleon can take on the colours of its background. • Her eyes took on a hurt expression. 

    35. VI. Detailed Study: • 20. festoon: If you festoon sth. with decorations, lights or other things, you spread or hang these things over it in large numbers in order to decorate it. • The garden was festooned with coloured lights.

    36. VI. Detailed Study: • 21. sprout: to grow or come out, appear and spread rapidly • n. new growth of a plant, shoot • bean sprouts / bamboo shoots • 22. rickety: weak in joints and likely to break • rickety old man / stairs / cart

    37. VI. Detailed Study: • 23. evangelist: one who preaches the gospel (good news) • 24. exhort: urge earnestly or advise strongly sb. to do sth. • to exhort sb. to do good / to work harder, etc.

    38. VI. Detailed Study: • 25. cheer: support and encourage, shout in praise, approval or support • Every time a Chinese runner won a race the crowd cheered. • The crowd cheered their favourite horse.

    39. VI. Detailed Study: • 26. infidel: (old & derog.) (used esp. in former times by Christians and Muslims of each other) someone who does not follow one's own religion, unbeliever • 27. draw up: to form and usu. write • to draw up a plan / a contract

    40. VI. Detailed Study: • 28. florid: (of a person's face) having a red skin • 29. paunchy: (derog. and humour) (esp. of a man) having a fat stomach, pot belly • 30. attorney-general: chief law officer and legal expert of the government of a state

    41. VI. Detailed Study: • 31. shrewd: clever in judgement, esp. of what is to one's own advantage • a shrewd lawyer who knows all the tricks • He is a shrewd and sometimes ruthless adversary.

    42. VI. Detailed Study: • 32. steep: soak, to let sth. stay in a liquid for softening, bringing out a taste etc. • Steep the coffee • Leave the coffee to steep for 5 minutes

    43. VI. Detailed Study: • 33. agnostic: person who believes that one can only have knowledge of material things and that nothing is or can be known about God or life after death • cf: atheist: person who doubts the existence of God

    44. VI. Detailed Study: • 34. growl /au/: to say sth. in a low rough and rather angry voice. • The dog growled at me. • He growled out a demand to her to stop.

    45. VI. Detailed Study: • 35. preliminary: introductory, preparatory • 36. spar: to box without hitting hard, argue or dispute (with sb) • The children are sparring with each other.

    46. VI. Detailed Study: • 37. drawl: to speak or say slowly with vowels greatly lengthened • drawl out one’s words

    47. VI. Detailed Study: • 38. ignorance: lack of knowledge • Poverty, disease and ignorance remain major world problems. • We are in complete ignorance of his plans. • She is very young, and ignorant of what life really is. • They ignored traffic regulations.

    48. VI. Detailed Study: • 39. bigot: one who obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his own opinions and prejudices, esp. religious beliefs.   • bigotry: the state of having very strong, unreasonable attitudes and opinions

    49. VI. Detailed Study: • 40. rampant: widespread and impossible to control • Theft, robbery, trafficking in narcotics, rural women and children are rampant in some places. • Rich soil makes some plants too rampant. • Mosquitoes are rampant in the dormitory.

    50. VI. Detailed Study: • 41. fagot: a bundle of sticks of firewood • 42. enlighten: cause to understand, free from ignorance or false beliefs, give more knowledge. • Can you enlighten me on this subject? • the age of Enlightenment in the 18th century