Genetic Engineering The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change.
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering -major tool is recombinant DNA. -Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA. -also called gene splicing. -tiny segments of a gene are taken out and replaced.
Transgenic Organisms Organisms altered by genetic engineering. -genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding. -gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another. -these require skill and knowledge to be carried out properly
Transgenic Organisms -GMO- genetically modified organism. -GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soybeans used in making oils. -GEO-genetically enhanced organism
Genetic Engineering -genetic material can be shared across scientific kingdoms. -bacteria engineered-produce human proteins -potential is virtually endless.
Agriculture -food processors affected by genetic engineering. -shelf-life, storage, food-handling;extended and simplified. -help resist spoilage.
Agriculture -plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant.-animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat.
Health and Medicine -affecting health care & medical industry.-alternating growth w/hormones- replacing organs are common.-materials maybe rejected by organism unless hormones are offered.
Pharmaceutical Products -Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect of drugs-tied to health and medicine-potential production of drugs is great. -hormone production-natural in endocrine system of mammalian body.
Pharmaceutical Products -bacteria engineered to produce hormone.-fermentation known as bioprocessing.
Industry and Environment -more efficient use of scarce minerals-greater efficiency in mining.-major concern-waste management.-biodegrade a number of waste products-sewage and petroleum products.
Genetic Engineering -gene splicing, gene cloning, molecular cloning-process cutting a gene out of a DNA strand and inserting the gene into another DNA strand.
Endonucleases -type of enzyme in DNA strand.-produced nucleic acid strand breaks interior of nucleic acid strand.-restriction endonucleases-enzyme produced by bacteria that is used in recombinant DNA.-cuts open bacterial plasmid.-gene construct engineered to plasmid with ligasees. Plasmids back to bacterium.
Cloning Vectors -carrier for DNA during the recombinant DNA process.-plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria.-double-stranded, circular molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome.
Cloning Vectors Promoter gene- A sequence of bases in a nucleic acid strand, that serves as a signal to start transcription. Chromosomal DNA construct- The gene of interest. Antibiotic resistant gene- Are used as a marker system for transformed cells.
Ligation and Conjugation Ligation- uniting attaching two DNA fragments. Recipient cell- is the cell that is reviewing the ‘new’ DNA. Donor cell- is the cell that provides the new DNA fragment for the recipient cell Virto- done in glass
Transformation • Transformation- process of introducing free DNA into bacteria Competent cell- a cell that is capable of taking up DNA. Electroporation- The use of an electric shock to momentarily open or disrupt cell walls.
Transformation Conjugation- the contact of bacteria that involves the exchange of DNA with a mating tube. Transformed cell- cell with new DNA Marker gene- a gene that identifies which organisms have been successfully transformed
Other Processes Totipotent- means that an organism has the ability to grow from a single cell -especially important with plants, also called regeneration.
AgroBacterium Transformation • Agro bacterium tumefacians is a bacterium that causes a disease known as crown gall in plants. • Infects plants by transferring its genetic material into plant cell. • Agrobacterium transformation is the most common technique for genetically engineered plants
Ballistic Gene Transfer Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA-coated projectiles as carriers. It is important to transport DNA through the walls of intended recipient cells. Projectiles are often known as micro projectiles Ballaistic transformation is done by using a ‘gene gun’ the gene gun has been useful in creating agricultural crops. • Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA-coated projectiles as carriers. It is important to transport DNA through the walls of intended recipient cells. • Projectiles are often known as micro projectiles • Ballaistic transformation is done by using a ‘gene gun’ the gene gun has been useful in creating agricultural crops.
The Role of Tissue Culture Callus- a mass of undifferentiated plant cells. By making a callus the number of transformed cells is increased
Genetic Engineering of Animals Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized call Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette.
Genetic Engineering of Animals The process of creating transgenetic animals involves three major steps: • Obtaining embryos • Microinjectioing embryos • Culturing and transferring zygotes Transgenetic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait.
THE END By: Kay & Jessica