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    1. Overview of Assistive Technology Russ Holland Alliance for Technology Access 1

    2. Overview Introduction Legislation / Funding Team-building Decision-making AT Assessment Process Areas of AT Resources 2

    3. Learner Outcomes Build relationships / contacts with other people interested in AT Acquire information on legislation & funding sources for AT implementation Learn about definitions of AT Explore teaming and decision-making issues related to AT service delivery Gain exposure to the various AT devices for different needs Obtain contacts and resources for AT 3

    4. Introduction to Assistive Technology 4

    5. Goals for ALL Individuals Independence Competence Confidence Communicating Participating Contributing 5

    6. Using Technology Why Would Anyone Use Technology? to accomplish tasks that would be difficult or impossible to accomplish without assistance where the tasks need to be done in the available time with the available resources 6

    7. Disability A deficit in the individual? A design flaw in the environment 7

    8. Abilities to Goals 8

    9. What is Assistive Technology? A system of no tech, low tech, and high tech tools, strategies, and services that match a person's needs, abilities, and tasks 9

    10. Assistive Technology in Federal Legislation 10

    11. Legislation The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The Assistive Technology Act Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Section 508 of the Rehab Act 11

    12. AT Concepts Assistive Technology is essentially a legal term related to use and need, not to specific items Includes a broad range of possible devices and services Not always something to be acquired 12

    13. AT Concepts Categories of tools that can be AT if required by a student for FAPE Assistive Technology Instructional Technology Universally Designed Technology Universally Designed Instruction (UDL) 13

    14. Functional Capabilities Reading Written Expression Math Problem-solving Communication Recreation Daily organization Seating/Positioning Hearing Seeing Self-Care Mobility Behavior Specific task-related skills 14

    15. Continuum from Low to High Tech 15 SAY.. AND/OR USE VIDEO SAY: It has been estimated that there are thousands of devices that fall into the AT continuum, so some classification system is helpful. SAY: Often, when people think of technology, they think only high-tech products, such as computers and high-tech communication aids, but the range of AT devices falls into a broad continuum from very low, non-electronic technology to very complex high technology. . SAY: Some AT devices are relatively simple, but potentially very effective low tech devices. Sometimes they have no electronics in them and sometimes they have very simple electronics which are often powered by standard batteries. Some examples of low tech devices include talking spell checkers, pencil grips, slant boards, single-message speaking devices, and splints. SAY: Other AT devices are a bit more complex and fall into the lower end of high tech. Devices in this category are called mid-tech by some people. They have a degree of electronic functioning and almost always have some sort of power source that requires some level of care. These devices are potentially very powerful, but for many users often require less training and support to get started. Some examples of mid-tech devices include portable word processors, multiple-message communication aids, and some alternate computer access devices. SAY: Examples of the most complex, but often necessary, AT category - high tech - includes computers, very sophisticated communication aids, and more complex computer input systems such as those controlled by eye gaze or with speech. Tools in this category generally require more training and maintenance than less complex tools. IF USING THE VIDEO, SAY: Please turn your attention to the monitor as have a look at examples of tools on the AT continuum. CLICK THE MOUSE TO PROCEED TO THE NEXT SLIDE.SAY.. AND/OR USE VIDEO SAY: It has been estimated that there are thousands of devices that fall into the AT continuum, so some classification system is helpful. SAY: Often, when people think of technology, they think only high-tech products, such as computers and high-tech communication aids, but the range of AT devices falls into a broad continuum from very low, non-electronic technology to very complex high technology. . SAY: Some AT devices are relatively simple, but potentially very effective low tech devices. Sometimes they have no electronics in them and sometimes they have very simple electronics which are often powered by standard batteries. Some examples of low tech devices include talking spell checkers, pencil grips, slant boards, single-message speaking devices, and splints. SAY: Other AT devices are a bit more complex and fall into the lower end of high tech. Devices in this category are called mid-tech by some people. They have a degree of electronic functioning and almost always have some sort of power source that requires some level of care. These devices are potentially very powerful, but for many users often require less training and support to get started. Some examples of mid-tech devices include portable word processors, multiple-message communication aids, and some alternate computer access devices. SAY: Examples of the most complex, but often necessary, AT category - high tech - includes computers, very sophisticated communication aids, and more complex computer input systems such as those controlled by eye gaze or with speech. Tools in this category generally require more training and maintenance than less complex tools. IF USING THE VIDEO, SAY: Please turn your attention to the monitor as have a look at examples of tools on the AT continuum. CLICK THE MOUSE TO PROCEED TO THE NEXT SLIDE.

    16. Assistive Technology Device any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." 16

    17. Assistive Technology Services any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. 17

    18. Assistive Technology Services the evaluation of the needs of an individual with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the individual in the individual's customary environment purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by individuals with disabilities 18

    19. Assistive Technology Services selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing of assistive technology devices coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs 19

    20. Assistive Technology Services training or technical assistance for an individual with a disability, or where appropriate, the family of an individual with a disability training or technical assistance for professionals, employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of individuals with disabilities. 20

    21. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) Guarantees all children with disabilities the benefit of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) Services defined in the Individualized Education Program (IEP) AT must be considered for every student during the development of the IEP AT that is needed must be provided at no cost to the individual or family 21

    22. The Assistive Technology Act First enacted in 1998 as the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act State-wide, consumer responsive information, demonstration and training programs Includes all ages Tech Act programs in all 50 states and several US Territories 22

    23. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Clear and comprehensive national mandate to end discrimination against individuals with disabilities Enforceable standards addressing discrimination against individuals with disabilities Federal government plays a central role in enforcing these standards on behalf of individuals with disabilities 23

    24. Americans with Disabilities Act The Act is divided into 5 sections: Title I Employment Title II Public Services Title III Public Accommodations Title IV Telecommunications Title V - Miscellaneous 24

    25. The Rehabilitation Act Section 504: Prohibits discrimination against the participation of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities for which they are otherwise qualified Section 508: Requires that electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the Federal government be accessible to people with disabilities 25

    26. The Telecommunications Act Manufacturing: equipment is designed, developed, and fabricated to be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable. Telecommunications Services: providers shall ensure that service is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable. Compatibility: equipment or service is compatible with existing peripheral devices or specialized customer equipment commonly used by individuals with disabilities to achieve access 26

    27. Funding of Assistive Technology Devices and Services 27

    28. Funding Avenues Private Funds School Districts Vocational Rehabilitation Programs Medicare Medicaid Waivers Social Security Incentives/Disability Work Incentives Medical Insurance Disability Insurance 28

    29. Match statement of needs and outcomes to the mandates and requirements of the funding source 29

    30. Assistive Technology Decision-making 30

    31. 31

    32. AT Services: Roles that Make It Happen Consumers Family members School-based Service Providers Rehabilitation Service Providers Medical Personnel Funders 32 Reaction to the medical model self direction, self empowering, want to direct our own search Consumer Roberta trackball Family Andrews mother red text Professional Service Provider Russ, the expert? only game in town expert or one part of a teamReaction to the medical model self direction, self empowering, want to direct our own search Consumer Roberta trackball Family Andrews mother red text Professional Service Provider Russ, the expert? only game in town expert or one part of a team

    33. Everyone is welcome and valued. 33

    34. Teaming Issues The person with disabilities is always the center of the team Team members bring different gifts - knowledge, skill, observations, ideas, suggestions Multiple perspectives are vital Focus is on the common interest in individual achievement and aligning thoughts on how to best foster it 34

    35. Gather data from a variety of sources... That was wonderful, Leonard, but according to our earlier assessments, you are not able to do that. 35

    36. The SETT Framework Student Environments Tasks Tools 36

    37. The Goal of SETT Framework to help collaborative teams create Student-centered (Self), Environmentally-useful, and Tasks-focused Tool systems that foster the educational success of students with disabilities 37

    38. The Student/Self The person who is the central focus of the AT process. The person for whom everyone involved in any part of the AT service provision is an advocate. 38

    39. Environments The customary environments in which the student is (or can be) expected to learn and grow 39

    40. Tasks The specific things that the student needs to be able to do to reach expectations and make educational progress 40

    41. Tools The supports and services needed by the student and others for the student to do in tasks in order to meet expectations 41

    42. Critical Elements of the SETT Framework Collaboration Communication Multiple Perspectives Pertinent information Shared Knowledge Flexibility On-going Processes 42

    43. Quality Indicators for Assistive Technology Services (QIAT) 43

    44. Quality Indicators for Eight Areas Administrative Support Consideration Assessment IEP Development Implementation Evaluation of Effectiveness Transition Professional Development 44

    45. Areas of Assistive Technology Devices 45

    46. Major Categories of Assistive Technology Devices Computer Access AAC AT for People with Learning Disabilities AT for People with Sensory Impairments Low Tech Solutions Creative Thinking Seating/Positioning Mobility Aids ADL / EADL Recreation 46

    47. 47

    48. Low Tech Solutions - Creative Thinking 48

    49. Imagination is more important than knowledge Albert Einstein 49

    50. AT is Everywhere!! AT does not have to be expensive or complicated AT can be anything that assists a person with a disability 50

    51. Example of Creative Thinking Plant Watering Device 51

    52. Remember.. 52

    53. Computer Access 53

    54. Five Elements of the Human/Technology interface Computer Interface Selection Method Selection Set Software 54

    55. The Computer Interface Hardware operated by user Also called input device or output device Generates one or more independent inputs or outputs 55

    56. The Selection Method Direct selection Indirect selection Scanning Coded access 56

    57. The Selection Set Choices available Letters, words, symbols, icons Presented visually, tactilely, or auditory Size and type based on users need 57

    58. Examples of Input Devices Assisted Keyboard On-Screen Keyboard Cursor Control-Pointer Systems Alternative Keyboards Voice Recognition Eye-Gaze 58

    59. Software What are we trying to accomplish? Goal. Character is selected Additional choices presented Limited choices presented 59

    60. Output Modalities 60

    61. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Low Tech / High Tech Dynamic / Static Display Input Methods Symbol Sets 61

    62. AAC Low Tech Low Tech 62

    63. AAC Low Tech, High Tech High Tech 63

    64. AAC Display Dynamic,Static Dynamic Static 64

    65. AAC Display Combination Combination Dynamic and Static 65

    66. AAC Input Methods Assisted Keyboard On-Screen Keyboard Cursor Control-Pointer Systems Alternative Keyboards Voice Recognition Eye-Gaze Mind Control Keyboard Emulation (ASCII) Switch Direct Switch Interface Scanning Morse Code Auditory 66

    67. AAC Symbol Sets Letters Objects Pictures 67 Letters can be letters, words, phrases, etc. Objects can be actual objects or minitures; some users will be confused by minitures (wont be able to relate a small item to the actual item. Pictures photos, color pictures, black and white pictures, line drawings, sign language based symbols, bliss symbolsLetters can be letters, words, phrases, etc. Objects can be actual objects or minitures; some users will be confused by minitures (wont be able to relate a small item to the actual item. Pictures photos, color pictures, black and white pictures, line drawings, sign language based symbols, bliss symbols

    68. AT for Persons with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities 68

    69. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Reading Support Writing Assistants Organizational Assistants Math/Spelling Supports 69

    70. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Reading Support Color Highlighting Books on Tape Reading Pen Text Reading Software 70 Quicktionary reading pen Kurzweil 3000 Quicktionary reading pen Kurzweil 3000

    71. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Writing Assistants Slant Board Magnetic Words Labels Pens/Markers Pencil Grips Raised Paper Templates 71 Quicktionary reading pen Kurzweil 3000 Quicktionary reading pen Kurzweil 3000

    72. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Writing Assistants Portable Word Processors AlphaSmart Dana Neo QuickPad DreamWriter 72

    73. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Writing Assistants 73

    74. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Writing Assistants Inspiration 74

    75. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Organizational Assistants 75

    76. AT for People with Learning and Cognitive Disabilities Math and Spelling Supports 76

    77. AT for Sensory Disabilities 77

    78. AT for People with Sensory Impairments AT for People who are Blind / Visually Impaired AT for People who are D/deaf or Hard of Hearing 78

    79. AT for People with Sensory Impairments AT for People who are Blind / Visually Impaired Access to Print / Multimedia Materials Access to Computers Orientation / Mobility 79

    80. Access to Print Materials OCR & Scanners Video Magnifiers Large Print Braille Tactile Graphics 80 CCTV - aladdinCCTV - aladdin

    81. Access to Multimedia Materials Cassette Tape Audio Description 81

    82. Access to Computers Screen Magnification Accessibility Features in Operating System Specialized software programs 82

    83. Access to Computers Speech Output Voice synthesis Screen Reading Software 83

    84. Access to Computers Braille Displays 84

    85. Orientation & Mobility Traditional Cane Travel Dog Guides Travel Aids 85

    86. Independent Living Household Aids Organizational Aids 86 Household aids phone flasher, smoke detector with light, Organizational aids braille notetakers, talking calculators, tactile checks, talking dictionaries, on line bankingHousehold aids phone flasher, smoke detector with light, Organizational aids braille notetakers, talking calculators, tactile checks, talking dictionaries, on line banking

    87. AT for People with Sensory Impairments AT for People who are D/deaf or Hard of Hearing Assistive Listening Devices Telecommunication Interpreting Access to Print / Multimedia Materials Independent Living Aids 87

    88. Assistive Listening Devices Hardwired System FM Infrared Induction Loop 88 Hardwired pocket talk FM use example from conference Infrared uses light to transmit signal Induction loop sound transmitted via magnetic fieldHardwired pocket talk FM use example from conference Infrared uses light to transmit signal Induction loop sound transmitted via magnetic field

    89. Telecommunications Issues Hearing ring Answering call Making a call TTY Relay Services Text Pagers 89 Hearing ring phone flashers Answering call in line amplifier, public phone amplifiers, blue connector on cord Making call being able to hear dial tone, voice mail menus, phone off the hook signal Hearing ring phone flashers Answering call in line amplifier, public phone amplifiers, blue connector on cord Making call being able to hear dial tone, voice mail menus, phone off the hook signal

    90. Interpreting Many different languages Interpret for everyone Cannot participate Will keep communication confidential Need breaks to reduce fatigue May have varying degrees of skill 90 Asl american sign language; pse pigeon sign english; mce manual coded english; see signed exact english; oral, cued, tactile indicators through environment hour of interpreting is equal to 4 hours of work at a desk Asl american sign language; pse pigeon sign english; mce manual coded english; see signed exact english; oral, cued, tactile indicators through environment hour of interpreting is equal to 4 hours of work at a desk

    91. Access to Print / Multimedia Materials Print Materials Transcription Note Taking Captioned TV / Films Open Captioning Closed Captioning 91 Open caption on all the time Closed caption you can choose to see captionOpen caption on all the time Closed caption you can choose to see caption

    92. Independent Living Aids Alerting devices Car devices Hearing Dogs 92 Alerting devices smoke alarm, door flasher, signals for dryer, oven, phone, bed shaker for alarm Car devices turn signals, alert for emergency vehicles, check new car electronics for compatibilityAlerting devices smoke alarm, door flasher, signals for dryer, oven, phone, bed shaker for alarm Car devices turn signals, alert for emergency vehicles, check new car electronics for compatibility

    93. Assistive Technology for Seating / Positioning / Mobility 93

    94. Seating and Positioning is important to. Provide comfort Provide stability Facilitate function Reduce the onset of secondary disabilities 94

    95. Types of Seating Systems Linear Contoured Custom Molded Combination systems 95

    96. Materials used in cushions Foam Gel Air Honeycomb 96

    97. Mobility Manual Devices Power Devices Driver Control Options Other Mobility Devices Interconnectivity to other AT 97

    98. Manual Mobility Devices Dependent Independent 98

    99. Power Mobility Devices Scooter Wheelchair 99

    100. Mobility Device Variations Standing Tilt in Space / Recline 100

    101. Driver Control Options Proportional Digital 101

    102. Other Mobility Devices Walkers Wheeled Walkers Crutches Canes 102

    103. Aids to Daily Living Bathroom / bathing aids 103

    104. Aids to Daily Living Food Preparation / Kitchen 104

    105. Aids to Daily Living Dressing Aids 105 Coilers - $3.95 pairCoilers - $3.95 pair

    106. Aids to Daily Living Household Aids 106

    107. Electronic Aids to Daily Living Used to control all aspects of the environment Simple to Complex 107

    108. Recreation Important area often overlooked for AT Outdoor recreation Indoor recreation 108

    109. Recreation Outdoor 109

    110. Recreation Indoor 110 Nintendo adaptive controller team Xtreme Pathways Development Group, Inc. (425) 742-4674, www.pathwaysdg.com Bowling ramp Access to Recreation www.accesstr.com Nintendo adaptive controller team Xtreme Pathways Development Group, Inc. (425) 742-4674, www.pathwaysdg.com Bowling ramp Access to Recreation www.accesstr.com

    111. Resources Books, magazines and journals on AT Internet resources Manufacturer resources Conferences Local resources 111

    112. Wrap Up 112

    113. Russ Holland russholland@ADKAccess.org Alliance for Technology Access www.ATAccess.org ATAinfo@ATAccess.org 113