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Lesson Two Marrakech Aims To know the writing technique of exposition. To learn the methods in developing an expository writing,esp. the use of examples. To appreciate the language features Teaching Contents 1. Exposition 2. George Orwell 2. Detailed study of the text

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lesson two
Lesson Two


  • To know the writing technique of exposition.
  • To learn the methods in developing an expository writing,esp. the use of examples.
  • To appreciate the language features
teaching contents
Teaching Contents
  • 1. Exposition
  • 2. George Orwell
  • 2. Detailed study of the text
  • 3. Organizational pattern
  • 4. Language features
  • 5. Exercises
time allocation
Time allocation

1. Background information (15 min.)

2. Detailed study of the text (120 min.)

3. Structure analysis (15 min.)

4. Language appreciation (15 min.)

5. Exercises (15 min)

  • Exposition is perhaps the type of writing that is most frequently used by a student, a scientist, or a professional.Exposition --- expounding explaining
  • An expository paper explains or explores something, such as the process of making a machine, the causes of a natural or social phenomenon, the planning of a project, or the solution of a problem.

Description -- deals with appearances and feelings

Narration --- deals with events and experience

Exposition --- deals with processes and relationships

  • Things can be explained by

The key to a definition is concreteness. One has to give concrete facts to make a definition effective.

2 listing
2. Listing

We must have enough number of items to be listed. Then, if possible, arrange the items in the graded order of increasing importance.

3 examples
3. Examples

It's the simplest, the most common, best method.

4 classification
4. Classification

We have to follow a system consistently. The categories of division should be mutually exclusive. There should be no overlapping. One item can belong to one category and only one.

5 comparison and contrast
5. Comparison and contrast

We liken one thing to another by pointing out their similarities (comparison) We emphasize the difference between the two. (contrast)

6 analysis
6. Analysis

We may discuss the cause and effect of a historical event, its nature and its significance in history.


The writer appeals to a reader's understanding with verifiable facts and valid information, explaining and interpreting that materials so that the reader will accept his point of view or explanation. Thus he must organize and develop his thought objectively and present it with honesty and completeness so that the reader will have confidence in what he is saying.


1. generally the writer makes a statement of the central thought or of his purpose quite early. This statement is sometimes called the "thesis", and may even be the title of the piece.

2. Sometimes the writer may first present and develop his facts and make his general statement as a conclusion at the end.

the text
The Text

It is an exposition, a political essay. Orwell leaves no doubt about his feelings concerning colonialism and its results. He has shown the reader how millions of people can be ignored and treated as less than human.

Theme ----
  • The suffering and misery of the colonial people in Marrakech
  • The writer gives descriptions by examples. The objective presentation of examples show that the people in colonial countries are poverty-stricken.
george orwell
George Orwell
  • A British novelist and essayist between the two world wars *image-1* http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/o/orwell/george/
    • He is mush praised in the west partly because of his anti-communist point of view.
    • He was born in India, father, a so called empire-builder --serving the British government abroad.
george orwell20
George Orwell
  • He received good education in Britain and studied in the most famous school "Eden“.
george orwell21
George Orwell
  • He travelled widely. Marrakech is one of the places he travelled to. His travel made him take a hostile attitude toward imperialism. He showed deep sympathy for the poor and became a firm supporter of socialism.
george orwell22
George Orwell
  • He joined Spanish War. He was seriously wounded. The Spanish socialist forces divided into faction. The faction he belonged to was persecuted. So he became so pessimistic and depressed, which led him toward anti-communist attitude.
george orwell23
George Orwell
  • Animal Farm ---- a political fable*image-2*
  • Each animal represents a certain human character, meant to criticise Stalin's socialism.
george orwell24
George Orwell
  • In reading his works, several aspects draw our attention:1. His works show sharp powers of observation and deep sympathy for suffering people. 2. His works give a deep sense of conviction and urgency.
george orwell25
George Orwell
  • 3. The use of English is clear, simple and direct, with no formality of embellishment. (addition/decoration) He said his ideal was to write prose like a window pane. ______ as clear as glass
detailed study of the text
Detailed study of the text
  • Marrakech *2image-3,4,5*
detailed study of the text27
Detailed study of the text
  • As the corpse.... The opening paragraph is very dramatic. The choice of this scene and the words he uses implies much more than what appears on the surface. 1) dirty 2) poor
in a cloud
in a cloud ---
  • a large number of small things moving through the air as a mass a cloud of insects
crowd ---
  • It suggests
  • 1) the lack of order
  • 2) people are not terribly concerned about the funeral.
all men and boys no women
all men and boys, no women
  • According to Muslim law, Muslims must respect women, and for this reason girls and women used to be kept in the house, where they could be safe. When they went out, they wore the veils to cover their faces. But this law has become a kind of excuse to discriminate against women.
pomegranates ----
  • refers to the fruit of the pomegranate tree, a native of Asia. It is a round reddish fruit with a mild flavour. The word comes to English from the old French. pome --- apple granate ---- having many seeds
chant ---

1. a word or group of words that is repeated over and over again, usually by more than one person.2. a religious prayer or song that is spoken or sung on only a very few notes so that there is not much variation in it.

appeal to
appeal to ----
  • If something appeals to you, you find it attractive or interesting attract / interest / fascinateThese books are designed to appeal to children.The idea of becoming director of the factory appealed to him.
identify ---
  • recognise; be able to name Can you identify your umbrella among a hundred others? Schoolboys could identify almost every car as it passed by.
derelict building lot
derelict building-lot
  • It would be an ugly, forgotten, abandoned place where a building was begun but never finished."derelict" --- comes from the Latin word meaning “to abandon”
  • How people are buried in Marrakech wail a short chant hack an oblong hole (dig without care) dump the body fling over it a little of the dried-up earthThe fact shows the human life has no value at all.
the thesis
The thesis
  • ---"All colonial empire....."It is the colonial empires that make the people so poor. Empires are built up by treating the people in the colonies like animals. This thesis is going to be supported by more illustrations and examples.
rhetorical questions
Rhetorical questions
  • --- What sort of audience Orwell had in mind when he wrote this essay? --- Clearly he is writing to readers of his own race and general class . So if you say yes, why don't they appear to be so?
undifferentiated ---
  • You can't differentiate one brown stuff from another, because they look just the same. If they do have individuality, it is irrecognizable, just like insects, like bees.
regularity ---
  • a state or situation in which things happen repeatedlyThere is no regularity about his work. He makes the same stupid suggestion with great regularity. His heart beats with the regularity of a clock pendulum.
a gazelle
a gazelle ---
  • *image-7* gazelle
  • a hoofed mammal with a slender neck and ringed horns. Gazelles are famous for their grace and beauty, and are native to Africa and Asia
mint sauce
mint sauce ---
  • *2imge-8 mint sauce*
  • an English specialty made of a combination of chopped mint leaves, vinegar, and water. It's traditionally served with roast lamb.
stow ---
  • to put, hide away in safe place If you stow sth. somewhere, you put it neatly away in a place where it can be kept until it is needed.= storestow away = hide
stow –
  • We stowed all the boxes in the attic.
  • Potatoes must be stowed in a cool dark place.
  • My jewellery is safely stowed away in the bank.
  • His baggage was safely stowed away in the plane.
# 8—15
  • The writer described the plight of the Jews, an poorest minority in a colonial country. Their fate could be worse than that of the natives.
quarters ----
  • apartment (room/house) residential area for particular kind of people
  • the doctor's quarters
  • servants quarters
  • officers' quarters
  • confined to quarters
  • sleeping quarters
ghettoes or ghettos
ghettoes or ghettos
  • Orwell uses ghettos here in the traditional sense of a portion of a city populated almost exclusively by Jews.
  • A ghetto is a part of a town or city in which many poor people or many people of a particular race, religion, or nationality live in isolation from the majority group in the town or city.
ghettoes or ghettos48
ghettoes or ghettos

It's about this black kid growing up in the ghetto.

---- ghetto life in European cities ---- slums and ghettos

overcrowding ---
  • adv + v ing dry-cleaning over-eating updating downgrading
sore eyed
sore-eyed ---
  • Eyes are infested from 1. malnutrition 2. lack of medical care 3. unhygienic condition
skull cap
skull-cap ---
  • a close-fitting brimless cap
  • It is often worn indoors and often by Orthodox Jews. Men who strictly practice Judaism are never supposed to have their heads bared. There must be some piece of cloth etc. between man and God.
infest ---
  • When insects, rats or other animals infest a plant, area, they spread in a large numbers and cover the area, usually causing damage.
  • overrun; swarm; pack; crowd; teem; flood; fill; be thick withfly-infested --- full of fliesThe back yard was infested by rats.
booth ---
  • a stall for selling goodspublic telephone boothan announcer bootha motion picture projection booth
prehistoric ---
  • ancient; out-of-date or old-fashioned His ideas on morals are really prehistoric. (derog or humor)
  • Is Simon's prehistoric car still working?
lathe ---
  • a machine for shaping wood, metal
warp ---
  • to cause to bend, curve, or twist out of shape
    • The hot sun warped the boards.
    • Some gramophone records warp in very hot weather.
frenzied adj
frenzied – adj.
  • full of uncontrolled excitement
    • Will this push him too far and lead to a frenzied attack?
    • She was climbing now with a sort of frenzied haste. --- a frenzied mob of over a thousand student --- make frenzied efforts
self contained
self-contained ----
  • self sufficient A self-contained community is one in which all or nearly all the needs of the community are met from within. There is little need to go outside for material or cultural desires. The Jewish ghettos are self-contained not only by preference but also by necessity, since Jews may have been unwelcome outside.
a good job coll bre
a good job ---coll. BrE
  • a fortunate state of affairs
    • This restaurant is not cheap, so it's a good job you've brought plenty of money.
    • He's gone, and a good job too.
that s only for show
That's only for show ---
  • The Jew only pretends to work as a poor labourer.show --- n. sth false or superficial, pretence
    • I make a show of interest, but I really couldn't have cared less.
    • He put on a good show, but he didn't deceive anyone.
    • He is not really ill; he is just putting on a show.
witchcraft ---
  • Orwell is probably referring to many occasions in the 1600's in both England and America when innocent women were tried and often burned or otherwise punished for witchcraft. By the very nature of the charge it was impossible for the accused to defend herself, just as it was for the Jews. And like the Jews witches served as scapegoats for the ills of society that couldn't be explained. Such trials reached their peak in America at Salem, Massachusetts.
16 17
# 16—17
  • Have you already sensed out the tone? Orwell here is extremely bitter and ironical. He didn't openly criticize the white colonialists who paid no attention to the people who suffer from poverty and misery. Instead, he pretends that they have a sound reason to ignore such people. The people simply cannot be seen because they are of the color of the earth.
in a hot country
In a hot country…
  • You don’t even see the labore ploughing the field.
  • South of Gibralter --- all countries or ear in North Africa
  • East of Suez --- the middle-east Asian countries
it is only because of this
It is only because of this…
  • “This” here stands for the fact that people always miss the peasants laboring in the fields because they have the color of the earth. It is only because of this reason that these poor starved countries are accepted as tourist resorts.
what does morocco mean
What does Morocco mean ...
  • Morocco being a French colony, to many Frenchmen Morocco has no more meaning than a place where they might find a government job, buy an orange grove with their money or invest his money. To an Englishman Morocco means nothing but a romantic, mysterious country which he has read in the novels. Camels, castles are the romantic bits in his mind by the novels.
erode ---
  • wear away; eat into If rock or soil erodes or is eroded by the weather, sea or wind, it cracks and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed.
    • Rain and rivers eroded the soft sand-stones.
desolate ---
  • barren; (of a place) in a ruined and neglected state1. If sth is desolate, it is empty of people and lacking in comfort.2. If sb. is desolate, they feel very sad, lonely and without hope. The forest was left desolate by the fire. After the war the town was a desolate place. She has been desolate since losing her job.
desolate ---
  • v.-- The land was desolated by floods. We were desolated by the death of our good friend.
lucerne ---
  • *2image-9*
  • named from the French "Luzerne" (glow worn - from its shiny seeds) is more commonly called alfalfa. It is widely cultivated and used as forage.
fodder n
fodder --- n.
  • rough food for cattle or horses, gathered from the fields and stored
  • spike --- n. long pointed piece of metal with an outward or upward point
  • harrow --- n. heavy frame with metal teeth or disks for breaking up ground after ploughing
this is as much equal to
This is as much …equal to
  • The animals yoked to the plough had just enough strength to plough the soil to a depth of about four inches. They could not make deeper furrows.
get at
get at
  • to reach
  • Marrakech is very dry. Even at a depth of 30 or 40 feet there is only but a trickle of water.
para 19
Para 19.
  • Miserable life of women
i suppose that
I suppose that …
  • The author gave the old woman a little money. The response was a shrill wail for she was greatly surprised. The old woman was fully accustomed to her miserable existence and to not being taken notice of by any one, so she almost considered the author to be doing something unnatural by giving her the money.
she accepted her
She accepted her …
  • She took it for granted that as an old woman she was the lowest in the society, that she was only fit for doing heavy work like an animal.
st bernard dog
St. Bernard dog ---
  • *2image-10*
  • A Saint Bernard dog is a large, strong dog, the breed of which comes from Switzerland. These dogs are often used as a patrol dogs in the mountains. The name comes from the monks of the Saint Bernard monastery who made use of the breed.
fifteen hands mule
fifteen-hands mule
  • A mule about 60 inches or 5 feet high
infuriate v
infuriate --- v.
  • fill with fury or rage outrage; aggravate; enrage; provoke
  • Donkey and Woman
    • Both are overloaded.
    • Both are willing creatures.
    • Both are small.
    • Both are ill-treated.
    • Both have an miserable end.
  • Donkey and Woman
    • Visible
    • Invisible
    • Implication --- Women are worse treated.
para 22 as the storks
Para. 22. As the storks …
  • The passive plodding ,earth-bound blacks are contrasted with the glittering white birds so great, pure and lofty who sail above them in the sky. While the former are weighed down by heavy packs, are sweating and uncomfortably hot, the latter are to soar unfettered in the cool sky above
  • Stork -- north
  • Negro – south
clump and clatter
clump and clatter
  • onomatopoeia words describing the sound of boots and iron wheels as they moved over the road.
  • The black soldiers were from Senegal.
  • Senegal: Republic of Senegal, a country in western Africa, formerly part of French West Africa, population – 5,085,388, capital Dakar. It became independent in 1960.


reach me down
  • British colloquialism
  • second-hand or readymade clothing
wide eyed
  • With the eyes opened widely, as because of surprise, fear, lack of sophistication
i saw how it was
I saw how it was.
  • I understand the reason why.
  • This is the result of colonization
this wretched boy
This wretched boy….
  • This miserable black boy is, as a result of the colonization of his country, a French citizen. Therefore he has been forced to leave his home in the forest and come to a garrison town where he ahs to do hard labor such as scrubbing floors for the whites and where he will catch syphilis. However this boy, instead of hating the whites, has deep respect for them.
in this connection
In this connection …
  • in this case.
  • While speaking of such things (while speaking of the one thought which every white man thinks…)
it doesn t matter twopence
It doesn’t matter twopence:
  • It doesn’t matter a bit.
  • It doesn’t matter at all.
  • N.C.O. or NonCOs
  • Noncommissioned officer; an enlisted person of any various grades in the armed forces, from corporal 下士 to sergeant 军士 inclusive
  • The body of soldiers of an army, as distinguished from the officers.
  • white bird/ scraps of paper

--- symbolic of freedom

five examples to illustrate the fact
Five examples to illustrate the fact
  • 1. the burial of the poor people2. an employee of the municipality3. poor living and working conditions of the Jews4. poor natural conditions5. miserable life of women
the cause of their poverty
The cause of their poverty
  • 1. Colonialization "All colonial empires are in reality founded upon this fact" (para.1; 17)
  • 2. Racial discrimination "The people have brown faces -- besides there are so many of them" (para.3 ) "He is the same colour as the earth, …" (para.16)
the cause of their poverty97
The cause of their poverty
  • 3. Black people's ignorance He showed his profound respect to his enemy. " He ... has feelings of reverence before a white skin" "Only the Negroes didn't know it“
  • 4. Poor natural conditions
organizational pattern
Organizational pattern
  •  Sect.1 (para 1--2) Ex.1
  • objective presentation of Example 1 the burial of the people in Marrakech
  • Sect.2 (para 3 ) the thesis ---- “All colonial empires are founded upon this fact”
  • the author's central idea Colonialization is based on the fact that people are very poor.
organizational pattern99
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.3 (para4--7) Ex.2 The Arabian government employee is as poor as a beggar.
  • Sect.4 (para8--15) Ex.3

1) the living conditions of the Jews 2) the hard work the Jews do 3) biased attitude against the Jews

organizational pattern100
Organizational pattern
  • The specific example of the people clamouring for a cigarette shows that the people are so poor, yet people still have rumours about them and have great prejudice against them.
organizational pattern101
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.5 (para16--18) Ex.4
  • The country is very poor. The poverty was not noticed by the white people. Because of their black color, the white people didn't even see them.
  • 1> The soils are poor. " dried-up soil" " eroded soil" " desolate" "waste" " broken-up brick“
  • 2> Everything is done by hand. "capital Ls“
organizational pattern102
Organizational pattern
  • 3> The farming tools are rough. "The plough is so frail, a rough iron spike which stirs the soil to a depth of about four inches.“
  • 4> The farming animals are weak and the peasants calculate carefully.
  • 5> The natural conditions are poor. "dry" They had to dig deep ditches.
organizational pattern103
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.6 (para19--21) Ex.5 the miserable life of women
  • The writer is describing objectively the physical appearance of the old woman, yet his anger comes through. Notice his choice of words. ( poor; old; mummified; reduced to bones; leathery skin; bent double; crushing weight)
organizational pattern104
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.7 (para22--26) conclusiondescription of the black troops in general and one black soldier individually.
  • It won't be long for the white people to keep these black people in ignorance.

1. simple words, simple statements to convey deeper meaning

2. the use of rhetorical questions which is very effective in conveying his anger

3. terse, lucid prose style.

4. good diction