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Environmental Product Design – Example: Access, Mobility, Vehicles 60/51 13/18 Example: Reducing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor Vehicles US Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector (in million metric tons) Source: US Emission Inventory 2005, EPA

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slide2

Example: Reducing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor Vehicles

US Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector (in million metric tons)

Source: US Emission Inventory 2005, EPA

slide3

Example: Reducing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor Vehicles

US CO2 emissions from transportation vs. total (in MMT)

32.3%

27.6%

Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/

slide6

Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends

Source: US EPA (2003) Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends

slide7

Pressure to reduce GHG emissions from vehicles is increasing:

  • European Union
  • Goal: Average of 120 g CO2 per km driven for passenger cars by 2015
  • 1999/2000: Voluntary agreements with car manufacturers
  • 2007/2008 : Conversion into binding regulation
  • California - Assembly Bill 1493
  • Goal: Average of 127 g CO2eq per km driven for passenger cars by 2016
  • 2002: AB 1493 passes Assembly and Senate
  • 2004: AB 1493is approved by Governor
  • New York State
  • 2005: Official proposal to adopt California’s regulation
  • Canada
  • 2005 Voluntary agreements with car manufacturers

Agreements / regulations do not use a full life cycle perspective

slide8

Typical life cycle GHG emissions of a passenger car:

Total:

Compact ~ 50 tonnes of CO2 eq

Midsize ~ 60-70 tonnes of CO2 eq

SUV ~ 80+ tonnes of CO2 eq

5-15 %

4-5 %

80-90 %

0-1 %

Vehicle GHG reduction strategies focus on the use phase

slide9

There are many ways to reduce use phase GHG emissions of vehicles:

  • Power train modifications: HEV, FCV, BEV
  • Engine modifications: Variable valve timing and lift, cylinder shut-off
  • Fuel combustion modifications: Turbocharger, CVR, direct injection
  • Transmission modifications: Continuously variable transmission, shifting schedules
  • Alternative fuels: Biodiesel,ethanol, hydrogen
  • Reduction of aerodynamic drag: Body shape
  • Reduction ofrolling resistance: Tires
  • Vehicle mass reduction: Smaller vehicles, better packaging, light-weight materials
slide10

Life cycle GHG emissions: ICEV versus HEV

Average lifecycle GHG (in kg CO2eq) emissions of a Civic Hybrid (HEV) and a Civic LX (ICEV)

Source: Bren Group Project on HEV (Class of 2005)

(Average for manual and automatic transmission)

slide11

Energy efficiencies of ICEV, HEV, BEV, FCV

Internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) :

Fuel productionand delivery

ICE,

powertrain friction

0.88 x 0.16 = 0.14

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV):

Fuel productionand delivery

Electric motor, ICE, battery

powertrain friction

0.88 x 0.32 = 0.28

Battery electric vehicle (BEV):

Power plant

Electricity

transmission

Battery

Electric motor,

powertrain friction

0.35 – 0.55 x 0.93 x 0.8 x 0.8 = 0.2 – 0.33

Fuel cell vehicle (FCV):

Compression,

transmission

Fuel cell

Electric motor,

powertrain friction

Reformation

0.8 x 0.75 x 0.5 x 0.8 = 0.24

slide12

Primary energy efficiencies of ICEV, HEV, BEV, FCV

Energy content of gasoline: 46.7 MJ per kg

Energy content of hydrogen: 141.9 MJ per kg

slide14

What are Biofuels?

  • Fuels derived from biological sources are called biofuels.
  • Examples are:
  • Grains, sugar crops and other starches can be fermented into ethanol, which can be burnt pure or blended with conventional gasoline.
  • Cellulosic material, including grasses, trees and green waste, can also be converted into alcohol.
  • Oil-seed crops (e.g. rapeseed, soybean and sunflower) can be converted into methyl esters, which can be burnt pure or blended with conventional diesel.
  • Other organic wastes with high calorific content, like waste oil, animal manure, organic household waste
slide15

Global production of fuel ethanol, 1975-2003(in million liters per year)

Source: International Energy Agency, 2004

slide16

Global production capacity of biodiesel, 1991-2003(in million liters per year)

Source: International Energy Agency, 2004

slide17

Ethanol production

Harvest

Technique

Feedstock

Conversion

Process

Heat

Sugar

Conversion

Co-Products

Feedstock

Fermentation

&

distillation

of alcohol

Sugarcane

Cut wholecane stalk

Crush cane,heat, treatchemically

Mainlycrushedcane

Heat,

electricity,molasses

Separatestarch, mill, applyenzymes

Graincrops

Take starchy parts only, leave stalks

Mainlyfossilfuel

Animalfeed,

sweetener

Harvestentireplant

Cellulosiccrops

Heat,electricity,animal feed,bioplastic,etc.

Convert tosugar viaenzymatic

hydrolysis

Mainly

lignin &cellulose

Wastebiomass

Collect,separate,clean

slide18

Range of estimated GHG reductions from biofuels

(well-to-wheels CO2eq compared to gasoline/diesel)

Biodiesel

from soy

+44%

E90 from corn

-2%

E90 from grass

-44%

Source: International Energy Agency, 2004

Source: Delucchi, ITS UC Davis, 2006

slide19

Trade-off across life cycle stages due to material substitution:

Reducing automotive GHG emissions through lightweight materials

slide20

The Impact of Material Choice on GHG Emissions from Vehicles

Greenhouse Gases

Materials

Production

Vehicle

Manufacturing

Vehicle

Use

Vehicle

Disposal

Material Choice

Need for Life Cycle Assessment

slide21

GHG emissions from material production

MaterialEstimatedGHG Emissions (in kg CO2eq / kg of material)

Primary Production Secondary Production

Steel *) 2.3 – 2.7 0.7 – 1.0

AHSS *) 2.3 – 2.7 0.7 – 1.0

Aluminum *) 13.9 – 15.5 1.4 – 2.0

Magnesium 18 – 42 recycled with aluminum

GFRP 2.5 – 8.3 –

CFRP 9.5 – 23 –

*) inventory data from 1999/2000

Sources: IISI (2000), ISI (2000), Li (2004), Ramakrishnan & Koltun (2004), Tharumarajah & Koltun (2007), Dhingra et al. (2001), Ashby (2005)

slide22

Vehicle mass savings

  • Material choice
  • Vehicle design
  • Power train efficiency
  • Driving cycle
  • Total mileage

Fuel savingsper mass savings

GHG emissionsper liter of fuel

  • Fuel type
  • Production pathway

Relationship between material choice and use phase GHG emissions

Rolling resistance

Aerodynamic drag

Gravity

Acceleration

slide23

Material choice and vehicle design

Power train efficiency, driving cycle, total mileage

Fuel type and production pathway

Calculation of GHG reductions during vehicle use phase

Secondary mass savings

Material replacement coefficient

Replaced material

Energy savings per mass savings

Total distance driven during use phase

Well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of fuel

slide24

Energy savings per mass savings ES

Power traintype

Driving cycle

Power trainadjustment

Midsize vehicle

Sources:

Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen (FKA) 2006

slide25

Different types of driving cycles

New European driving cycle (NEDC)

slide28

vehicle life cycle

Primary production

Vehiclemanufacturing

Vehicleuse

Vehicle end-of-life management

Secondary production

Material recycling in attributional LCA

Allocate elementary flows to scrap inputs and outputs

Scrap use is accounted for in the recycled content method,but ignored in the avoided burden method

Generation and recycling of scrap isignored in the recycled content method,but accounted for in the avoided burdenmethod

slide29

Material Recycling: Recycled Content vs. Avoided Burden

Recycled Content

(no allocation)

Avoided Burden

22MJ/kg

1

A

Prim

10MJ/kg

Sec

0.75

0.25

B

Prim

Sec

0.75

0.25

C

Prim

1

slide30

The Impact of Material Choice on GHG Emissions from Vehicles

Materials

Production

Vehicle

Manufacture

Vehicle

Use

Vehicle

End of Life

CO2eq

end-of-life

recycling

vehicle

use

Total mileage

material

production

TM

slide31

Reading for Tuesday, 2 December:Nokia (2005) IPP Pilot Project – Stage II Final Report: Options for Improving Life Cycle Environmental Performance of Mobile Phones(posted on course website as Nokia 2005)Due date for 4th Assignment: Thursday, December 4(assignment is posted on course website)