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JOC Presented by… Job Order Contracting (JOC) “Taking the mystery out of JOC…” February 12-13, 2008 Procurement 101 Brief introduction to some very important terms and State of Arizona rules Fully understanding (or “taking out the mystery of”) JOC

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job order contracting joc


Presented by…

Job Order Contracting (JOC)

“Taking the mystery out of JOC…”

February 12-13, 2008

joc overview
Procurement 101
    • Brief introduction to some very important terms and State of Arizona rules
  • Fully understanding (or “taking out the mystery of”) JOC
    • There continues to be a lack of understanding of JOC
    • JOC: 10-Step Process
  • Benefits of JOC
    • Immediate Access - Schedule - Quality - Force Multiplier - Cost Effective/Best Value
  • Decision Tree:
    • Do with In-House labor/mgmt? Existing JOC? My own Bid? My Own JOC Contract?
  • Questions and Answers
    • Everything is fair game…ask the question you have been dying to ask
JOC: Overview
procurement 101


Procurement 101

Mark Kinsey, Mohave

procurement 1014
In the beginning…there was the State Procurement Code…and it was good and necessary
  • And, more was good…the Arizona State Board of Education (SBE) rules
  • And, then, even more was better…SBE implementing alternative delivery methods (recently added)
  • Due to the efforts of key groups and individuals in the state, Arizona has been able to successfully implement Alternative Project Delivery Methods such as Construction Manager at Risk and Job Order Contracting (JOC)
Procurement 101
procurement 1015
In the State of Arizona, JOC is specifically allowed for in the

following situations (Statutory reference: A.R.S. Section 34-101, 41-2503, R7-2-1116)

“Job Order Contracting means a project delivery method in which…

  • The contract is a requirements contract for indefinite quantities of construction.
  • The contract to be performed is specified in delivery orders issued during the contract.
  • Finance services, maintenance services, operations services, preconstruction services, design services, and other related services may be included.”

*Summer 2007, Department of Education added some additional implementing rules.

Procurement 101
procurement 1016
Types of Projects

JOC is intended for minor new construction, renovations, repairs and additions, including but not limited to the following…

  • Any project that is operating under extreme pressure due to time constraints and lack of dependable resources
  • Minor construction projects (under $1 Million)
  • HVAC and Electrical
  • Routine repairs
  • Renovations of all types
  • Upgrades to ADA standards
  • Emergency repairs
  • Site work and utilities
  • Parks and playgrounds
  • Upgrade landscaping
  • Classroom additions
  • Complete new buildings
  • Replace flooring

Some JOC contracts

very specific (e.g., landscaping); others

allow for broader range

(e.g., 16 divisions

of work)

Procurement 101
procurement 1017
JOC Terms
  • JOC - Acronym for Job Order Contracting
  • IDIQ - Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity
  • UPB - Unit Price Book
  • RS Means - Industry standard unit price cost book
  • Coefficient - Multiplier applied to UPB
  • Task Order, Delivery Order or Job Order - Individual construction projects performed under the umbrella procurement
  • Non-prepriced item - A construction task added to the UPB
Procurement 101
procurement 1018
What is JOC?
  • JOC is a project delivery method using an Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract for a specified period of time (it has a long history of success in US and has been called many different things in different government agencies).
    • Note: Like all other procurements, JOC is only as good as the written contract and contractors selected to perform the work
  • JOC provides an "on-call" contractor at a guaranteed competitive rate structure.
  • JOC is targeted for small to medium sized construction projects.
  • JOC has a specified term, generally up to five years.
  • JOC pricing is based on a coefficient tied to a Unit Price Book (UPB) such as RS Means.
Procurement 101
procurement 1019
What is JOC (Continued)?
  • The JOC contractor bids a coefficient or coefficients that includes direct and indirect costs and overhead & profit.
  • Unit prices form the basis for establishing the lump sum value of each task order.
  • JOC has a high performance incentive for the contractor to provide exceptional customer satisfaction; they are only as good as our last task order.
  • Pre-qualified, local small businesses perform most of the in-place construction.
  • JOC places an emphasis on building relationships through team collaboration to provide the highest possible quality and service.
Procurement 101
procurement 10110
*Procurement Considerations (Do You Need JOC?)
  • Look at past history, annual volume, of work done in these type of areas
  • Is this year different, more or less need for these type of services
  • Look at available JOC contracts for your use
  • Ask for applicable JOC contractor to provide cost estimate on a project
  • If you believe necessary, complete your own JOC contract
    • This requires significant commitment of your organization resources
    • Is this best use of in-house purchasing staff, facilities manpower, etc.
    • Determine unit price book to use
    • Determine the desired contract terms
    • Cost your organization (facilities, equipment, etc.)
    • Determine a workable coefficient for some preliminary estimating
    • Estimate some construction jobs similar to work expected using the unit price book

*In part from February 2002, Alliance for Construction Excellence presentation.

Procurement 101
procurement 10111
If you determine to proceed with your own JOC, the following is the selection Process for JOC…

Developing your own JOC…you may do in either of the following fashions:

(Note: All State Procurement Code implementing rules apply in addition recently approved State Board of Education rules apply for schools)

  • One-step Competition (RFQ)
    • Short list
    • Negotiate with top person/firm on the short list
  • Two-step Competition (RFQ and RFP)
    • Short list
    • RFP from short listed person/firm
    • Negotiate with highest scoring proposer


Seek outside

assistance to

develop if you

have not done


Procurement 101
procurement 10112
You Make the Call!

The City of XYZ wants to build a new side walk and

several ADA accessible ramps for the upcoming

“Extra Special Pizza Eating Bowl.” They need it done

in the next 30 days. It has been previously estimated

to costs between $75K and $100K.

Could this be a candidate for a Job Order Contract?

Procurement 101
procurement 10113
You Make the Call (Continued)!

Of course the answer is that more information

is needed; however, in general, this could be an

excellent candidate for JOC.

What are some of the things that City XYZ would

want to consider?

So, the real answer is, it depends!!!

Procurement 101
fully understanding joc


Fully Understanding JOC

Charlie Bowers, Parsons-3DI

fully understanding joc15

Step 1

The JOC Process

  • The Reality--“A 10-Step Process”
    • Step 1: Initial Request
    • Step 2: Scoping Session
    • Step 3: Scoping Confirmation
    • Step 4: Estimate Preparation
    • Step 5: Plan the Job
    • Step 6: The Actual Construction
    • Step 7: Updates
    • Step 8: Final Inspection
    • Step 9: Close Out
    • Step 10: Warranty Issues

Step 10

Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc16
Step 1: Initial Request (Getting the Owner’s Thoughts on Paper)

“Communication is Key to Success”

  • Are all the interested parties represented?
  • Who are the decision makers?
  • Has JOC been selected as the project delivery method?
  • Is the project funded?
  • Is the project under $1 Million?
  • Do you have any pre-determined expectations?
  • Are there special wage considerations (i.e., federal funded projects)?
  • Are you relying on existing plans, estimates or budgets?
  • Are there any time or critical constraints?
  • Are permits required?
  • Are there MBE/WBE goals?
  • Etc…
Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc17
Step 2: Scoping Session
  • Visit the jobsite and document conditions
  • Establish project goals
  • Determine if design services are required
  • Define building systems and quality of materials
  • Identify client’s responsibilities
  • Determine project schedule and major milestones
  • Identify safety, security and hazardous material issues
Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc18

Step 3: Scope Confirmation

  • Confirm scope of work and quantities
  • Review any qualifications and assumptions
  • Revise the scope as necessary
  • Perform value engineering
  • Review the schedule
  • Confirm start and completion dates
  • Understand and mitigate impacts on existing operations and facilities
  • Review safety concerns and requirements
Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc19

Step 4: Estimate Preparation

  • Determine quantities of work.
  • Build the estimate from the UPB.
  • Summarize the estimate and apply coefficient.
  • Apply city cost index.
  • Apply applicable bond, permit & taxes.
Fully Understanding JOC
estimate preparation

Step 4 (Continued): Estimate Preparation



Unit Cost

w/OH & P

Apply City

Cost Index

RS Means Index #

Apply Coefficient



Total Cost

Estimate Preparation
fully understanding joc22
Step 6: The Actual Construction

Step 7: Updates

Step 8: Final Inspection

Step 9: Close Out

Step 10: Warranty Issues

No Surprises!

The easy


Who will fix?

Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc23
You make the call!

- The owner has several small jobs in mind for repair and/or construction and doesn’t think JOC contract would be viable

- The owner decides to Bid the items separately.

- Did the owner make the right decision?

Fully Understanding JOC
fully understanding joc24
And the answer!

It depends!

Did the owner get the best value among the competing alternatives…let me explain…

Fully Understanding JOC
benefits of joc


Benefits of JOC

Lisa Bentley, Centennial

benefits of joc26
Top Five Reasons JOC is a Method of Choice for Many

Reason #1: Immediate access to negotiated contract, expected level of service

Reason #2: Reduces Lead Time/Defined Schedule

Reason #3: Quality/Efficiencies

Reason #4: Extension of staff

Reason #5: Cost/Budget advantages

“Is it the cheapest method? Not always. Is it the most cost effective and efficient method? Many times!”

Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc27
Reason #1: Immediate Access
  • Prenegotiated JOC contracts with qualified vendors, whether your own or through a cooperative can be used immediately
    • When comparing already awarded JOCs, the devil is in the details!!!
    • .90 coefficient award of one JOC may actually cost more than another .90 coefficient award!
    • What’s included (travel?), what’s not included (overhead & profit on certain items)?
  • You may retain the same awarded contractor(s) for the same amount time as a traditional Bid or RFP (up to five years from time of award under Arizona Statute)
  • BUT, must ensure scope and type of work was what was contracted for just like other procurement actions
Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc28
Reason #2: Schedule
  • Allows for faster response to customer needs
  • Reduces disruptions to on-going operations through flexible scheduling
  • Eliminates the need for multiple project solicitations
  • Provides quick response to changing market conditions
Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc29

60 Days

120 Days

180 Days

Standard bid timeline using A/E

185 days to contract

JOC timeline using A/E

116 days to contract

JOC timeline w/o A/E design

35 days to contract


*Study from Spring Branch, TX

Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc30
Reason #3: Quality
  • Proven general contractors ensure top quality performance
  • Team environment encourages quality collaboration
  • High quality work ensures repeat business and develops


Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc31
Reason #4: Extension of staff
    • Predictability of project results
      • Alternate delivery methods such as JOC, CM@Risk allow for this
      • Costs, schedule, safety, and quality
    • Dependability
    • Collaborative approach
    • Reduced risk
    • Increases MBE/WBE and small business participation
Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc32
Reason #5: Cost Effective/Best Value
  • Dramatically decreases up-front design, procurement and administrative costs
  • Maximizes the dollars for in-place construction
  • Provides an extension of the owner’s staff
  • Reduces backlog of maintenance, repair and renovations
  • Provides a complete proposal before the P.O. is written
  • Allows scope and budget alterations with defined costs
  • Reduces or eliminates claims, litigation and change orders
Benefits of JOC
benefits of joc33

Good JOC

contracts &

JOC contractors

virtually eliminate

vendor caused

“Change Orders”

Benefits of JOC
decision tree


Decision Tree

Mark Kinsey, Mohave

decision tree35



tool in



toolbox so

that facilities,

purchasing, etc.,

folks can

use their

Time & $ more


Three Job Orders

(Two are JOC candidates)



Job Order



Job Order

Data/Prelim Analysis

Discuss w/JOC Vendor

Data/Prelim Analysis

Discuss w/JOC Vendor

In house labor/mgmt? Existing JOC? New Bid? My own JOC?

What is best value (consider time, manpower, etc.)?

If I decided to do in house, my own Bid, or my own JOC, consider opportunity cost? In deciding between JOC contracts, did I compare “apples to apples” on coefficients?

Decision Tree
joc capabilities



Time to Complete:

21 calendar days

Change Orders:


Replaced existing water piping with new fire and water loop throughout entire campus

Is this something I could

have done with in-house labor/mgmt

Would that have been Best Value?

JOC Capabilities
joc capabilities37



4 weeks

Change Orders: None



JOC Capabilities
joc capabilities38




56 calendar days




Removed and replaced a high school track and related concrete curbs

JOC Capabilities
joc capabilities39



53 calendar days

Change Orders:


Roof & structural

repairs like those

shown in this photo.

JOC Capabilities
barriers to a successful joc
And finally,
  • Ensure the project is funded or that funding is readily available
  • Owner’s representative must understand JOC
  • Not simply another price quote for the work
  • Not a free estimating service
  • Owner still has a lot involvement in the job
  • Allow adequate time for the process
  • Contractor invests a lot of front end effort
  • Owner can expect excellent execution of the work
  • JOC eliminates most change orders
  • Ensure that all owner & contractor stakeholders have had sufficient input into the job
  • Ensure owner & contractor consensus on scope, schedule and cost
  • Owner & contractor must each holdup its end of the bargain
  • Successful JOC is a non-adversarial relationship

Did I get the

Best Value?

(doesn’t matter

what method used)

Barriers to a Successful JOC
barriers to a successful joc41
What is the mystery of JOC? Some things to keep in mind…

“The mystery is that JOC is not a mystery (and other alternate delivery methods) for those who have the time and resources to commit to understanding it.”

“JOC is another tool in your procurement tool bag for getting the work done in your agency. It has great flexibility and ability to achieve your organization goals if managed properly.”

“A properly negotiated JOC contract can be a life saver…”

“Not all JOC coefficients are the same…the devil is in the details…”

“Can I do the job in-house, sure! But, at the cost of something else not getting done…”

“Can I procure my own JOC contract, sure! Am I truly getting the best value on my contract? Do I have the ability/staff to manage the contract.”

Barriers to a Successful JOC
question and answer time
This concludes our education and training session on

Job Order Contracting: “Taking the Mystery Out of JOC”

Are there any questions?

Thank you for your attendance today…

Please complete the survey provided. Thank you.

Question and Answer Time

Mark Kinsey

Mohave Educational Services Cooperative

PH: 602-277-4290


Charlie Bowers


PH: 602-999-1130


Lisa Bentley

Centennial Contractors

PH: 623-764-0397


Note: Please feel free to contact any of the presenters

directly with any questions regarding JOC.