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Including Women? (Dis)junctures between Voice, Policy and Implementation in Integrated Development Planning Alison Todes, URED, HSRC Pearl Sithole, D&G, HSRC Amanda Williamson, Architecture and Planning, Wits Including Women?

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Including Women? (Dis)junctures between Voice, Policy and Implementation in Integrated Development Planning

Alison Todes, URED, HSRC

Pearl Sithole, D&G, HSRC

Amanda Williamson, Architecture and Planning, Wits

including women
Including Women?
  • Paper explores whether women have been able to have voice in local government and IDP processes
  • And whether this has affected municipal policy and implementation
including women3
Including Women?
  • Initiatives to incorporate women in urban development
    • Technocratic:
      • mainstreaming approach
      • gender targeting, special structures
      • But criticised for its depoliticisation of gender and development
      • Effectiveness questioned
    • Politics and access to power
      • Women’s access to mainstream politics
      • Social movements
      • But political inclusion doesn’t guarantee gender-awareness, particularly if focus is on representation
including women4
Including Women?
  • Literature often assumes good links between voice, gender aware policy and practice
  • Paper explores these links
    • Argues that inclusiveness with regard to gender is uneven and partial at all three levels
    • And there is no one-one correspondence between voice, policy and practice
    • Outcomes are influenced by both technocratic practice and politics in and outside of local government
including women5
Including Women?
  • Research based on 3 KZN case studies with different politics, levels of capacity and resources: eThekwini, Hibiscus Coast, Msinga
  • Interviews and focus groups with councillors, officials in national provincial and local government, feminist activists, NGOs, project committees and beneficiaries,
  • Examined:
    • Effects of representation of women as councillors and officials, special structures
    • Participatory process linked to IDP
    • Gender in IDPs, and whether they reflect women’s interests
    • Inclusion of women in projects and implementation
including women core conclusions
Including Women? Core Conclusions
  • Inclusion of women and gender in local government is partial and uneven
  • Significant differences between municipalities
    • Most inclusive in eThekwini – has gone furthest in introducing gender structures, and innovative projects benefiting women
    • Least inclusive in Msinga
    • Reflects both local politics, but also capacities and resources
including women core conclusions7
Including Women? Core Conclusions
  • IDP process is imposed on pre-existing social and gender relations which shape how women’s voice is heard
  • Women very present in IDP participation, but local politics shapes whether they can speak and be heard
  • Lack of a strong women’s movement with coherent demands is a key gap
  • Affects pressure to engender IDP
  • Women councillors don’t necessarily provide this support – but their position is anyway contested and depends on party political support: affects extent to which gender is considered
including women core conclusions8
Including Women: Core Conclusions
  • Although women have had voice in IDP participation, IDPs are largely silent on gender
  • And only some of the ‘women’s issues’ raised are addressed
  • Partly reflects delinking of participation from IDPs, and IDPs from implementation
  • But also difficult to engender IDPs in absence of ground level and sectoral analysis
including women core conclusions9
Including Women? Core Conclusions
  • But women still benefit at a project level
    • In committees, as workers and beneficiaries
    • Effects of national guidelines
      • technocratic approach makes a difference
      • But its existence has depended on politics
    • But project managers often keen to include women
    • And involvement here often seen by women and communities as extension of their traditional role
including women core conclusions10
Including Women? Core Conclusions
  • But women often in marginal positions in projects
    • Low waged labourers
    • In committees, not chairs
    • Many in survivalist projects with low returns
    • Outside of more lucrative flagship projects
  • Address practical needs, but don’t transform their position
including women conclusions
Including Women? Conclusions
  • Women are being included to a greater extent in local politics, IDP participation, and local projects
  • But it doesn’t necessarily change pre-existing gender relations or address deeper gender issues
  • Disjunctures between voice, policy and implementation
  • Although technocratic processes help inclusion, nature of inclusion is limited by social relations and local politics