Global Warming Effects on Adelie Penguins Lizzy Plotkin Thomas Daigneau Amanda McCracken
Presentation Outline • “Based on various scientific evidence, we anticipate that on the Antarctic Peninsula, rapid climate change is leading to population decline of the Adelie Penguins.” • Background Information • Meet the Penguins • Antarctica • Global Warming • The Consequences… • In the Future Two Adelie penguins
Meet the Adelie Penguins • Pygoscelis adeliae • Smallest Antarctic Penguin species • Ice Dependent • Rapid Population Decline A Group of Adelie Penguins
Area of Study Antarctic Peninsula Map • Antarctic Peninsula • Home of the Adelie • Mostly on the Peninsula • 177 colonies • Average Temperature: • 0 to -10°C Adelie Penguin colonies in Antarctica
Global Warming Basics • Starting at the Industrial Revolution • Increase in Greenhouse Gases • Many Possible Causes Global warming trends from 1860 to 2001
Effects on Antarctica • Winter Temperature has risen 9°F in last 50 years • Unpredictable yet dramatic • Ice Melting • Glacier Calving • Species Loss Antarctic glacier calving
The Consequences Adelie Population as a Result of Sea Ice Extent and Air Temperature Adelie Population and Sea Ice Extent (1978-2005)
The Food Chain A diagram of the bottom up food chain consisting of ice algae, krill and the Adelie Penguins. So what’s the problem?
Effects of Ice Melting • Decline in ice algae causes break in food chain • Blocks in usual forage paths • Destruction of nests • Glacier calving • Heavier snows • Slush vs. ice and rock
STELLAModel STELLA model showing the effects of melting ice on the populations of the Ice Algae, Krill, and Adelie penguin species.
STELLA RESULTS A diagram comparing the populations of the Ice Algae, Krill and Adelie penguins with the temperature change in Antarctica. Adelie penguin population with the temperature change in the Antarctic peninsula.
Continuation of ice loss Loss of nesting sites More melting Sun’s ray on dry ice vs. wet ice Tb=ETs Further break down of the food chain Species adaptation to new niches Homogenization Less diverse speciation Future Predictions Larsen B ice shelf, 5th March 2002 (16 days later) Larsen B ice shelf, 17th Feb 2002
What You Can Do • Limit use of fossil fuels • Use less energy • Recycle • Spread the word • Sign up to help! • Greenpeace International You’ll make the penguins much happier!
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