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  1. ESCAPE Chapter 3

  2. Biologically Aversive High & low temp Painful stimuli that can cut or bruise Spoiled food that smells bad Psychologically Aversive Tendency to minimize contact with biologically aversive stimuli Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions

  3. Escape • A response is immediately followed by escape from “something” • What are the “something’s” that a person would want to escape from?

  4. What do these have in common? • Electric shock • Smelling a skunk (unpleasant odor) • Jack hammer’s constant drilling • Hot pepper sauce (painful stimuli)

  5. Minimize Contact • We minimize contact with those stimuli or events • These conditions are aversive • Escaping these conditions can strengthen the behavior that resulted in escape

  6. Examples

  7. BEFOREBEHAVIORAFTER John is hot John stands in front of fan John is not hot

  8. BEFOREBEHAVIORAFTER John is cold John stands in front of heater John is not cold

  9. Aversive Condition Aversive Condition = Negative Reinforcer

  10. Aversive Condition • Any stimulus, event, or condition whose termination immediately following a response increases that response

  11. Harmful vs. Aversive • Are all biologically harmful conditions psychologically aversive? • Is plaque on teeth aversive • Are all aversive conditions harmful? • Is a hypodermic needle full of penicillin • We can’t rely on our animal nature to steer us away from harmful substances

  12. Adversive vs. Aversive • Adversive is not a word • Aversive comes from aversion (intense dislike) • Dislike is not a reliable criterion for aversive conditions. • Defined as aversive only if its termination reinforces an escape response.

  13. Escape Principle • A response becomes more likely if it has immediately removed or reduced an aversive condition in the past.

  14. Escape Contingency • The immediate, response-contingent removal of an aversive condition resulting in an increased frequency of that response.

  15. Tree Diagram

  16. Contingency Table

  17. Inappropriate natural contingency Before: Task demands Behavior: John spits After: No task demands

  18. InterventionDifferential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) • The replacement of an inappropriate response with a specific appropriate response that produces the same reinforcing outcome

  19. Inappropriate Natural Contingency Before: Task demands After: No task demands Behavior: John spits

  20. DRA Inappropriate Natural Contingency Behavior: John spits Before: Task demands After: No task demands Behavior: John asks for break Performance-Management Contingency

  21. Spitting Graph Frequency Count

  22. Functional Assessment • An analysis of the contingencies responsible for behavioral problems

  23. Functional-Assessment Strategies • Interview. Talk to the person with the behavior problem and those who interact with and have direct contact with that person. • Observe. Observe the person in his daily routine for an extended period of time. • Intervene. Change contingencies that may be reinforcing the problem behavior.

  24. Sick Social Cycle • Often aversive behavior occurs because such behavior is reinforced by the attention, approval, or compliance of another person. In turn, the temporary relief from that aversive behavior reinforces the giving of that attention, approval, or compliance by the other person.

  25. Page 53

  26. DRA ___33._____________ Natural Contingency Behavior: John spits Before: 34. After: No task demands Behavior: 35. _36.________________ Contingency

  27. Enrichment Before: Shock on Behavior: Press Lever After: Shock off

  28. The consequences of past behavior cause current behavior Past experience causes current behavior by channeling unconscious mental forces Psychoanalysis vs. Behavior Analysis – Which is which?

  29. What does the toothpaste view of abnormal behavior?How does it distract us?

  30. Fundamental Terms • Traditional vs. Malott