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Positive Psychology In China 积极心理学在中国 Revision of Teachings and Life Meaning and Purpose 教育修订及生命的意义与目的. Dr Mark Williams Ph.D. Professor of Positive Psychology Education Shenzhen University      Mobile: (0011 86 755) 13480129331 email: markw.szu@gmail.com web: www.aappi.net.

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positive psychology in china revision of teachings and life meaning and purpose
Positive Psychology In China


Revision of Teachings and Life Meaning and Purpose


Dr Mark Williams Ph.D.Professor of Positive Psychology EducationShenzhen University     Mobile: (0011 86 755) 13480129331email: markw.szu@gmail.comweb: www.aappi.net

questions for this lecture
Questions for this Lecture
  • What is happening in Positive Psychology in China?


  • What are the main things we have discussed this semester in Positive Psychology?


  • What is “life meaning and purpose” and how do you find it and live it?什么是‘生命的意义和目的,以及如何


  • How is religion and spirituality part of life meaning and purpose? 宗教和灵性是如何组成生命的意义和目的的一部分的呢?
religion and well being
Religion and well-being 宗教与幸福
  • A Meta-analysis of 850 research papers (Moreira-Almeida, Lotufo Neto & Koenig, 2006) concluded that “the majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. “阿元的850 篇研究论文(莫雷拉-阿尔梅达,洛图福内托和科尼格,2006)的分析结论是,“指导良好的研究结果表明,大多数宗教都

积极参与更高层次的心理健康与福利 (生活满意度相关指标,快乐,积极的影响,以及更高的士气)和更低的抑郁,自杀念头和行 为,药物/酒精使用/滥用。“


How can our existing life meaning and purpose beliefs, religions and spiritualities value the earth? 如何衡量我们现有的生命的意义和目的,信仰,宗教和灵性的在地球上的价值?

  • How can Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, etc value the natural world to help stop pollution to save our life support ecosystems? 怎样才能基督教,佛教,伊斯兰教,印度教等价值的自然世界,帮助制止污染,挽救我们的生命支持生态系统?
china international conference on positive psychology
China International Conference on Positive Psychology 中国积极心理学国际会议
  • August 7-10, 2010 at Tsinghua University, Beijing.
  • A quest for wealth is “fast outpacing mental health and well-being in China” according to psychologist


  • Kaiping Peng, founder of the Berkeley-Tsinghua Program for Advanced Study in Psychology


  • “We are seeking to correct that imbalance by spreading the science of happiness in China.” “我们正在寻求通过在中国传播正确的幸福科学来矫正现在出现的不平衡。”
mental health in china
Mental Health in China中国心理卫生
  • The timing was relevant in the wake of China’s Foxconn plant worker suicides, rising crime rates, and headlines about knife attacks on preschoolers.


scientific study of happiness
Scientific Study of Happiness有关幸福的科学研究
  • “Dedicated to the well-being of Chinese society and to world development 竭诚为中国人民的社会福利和对世界发展,”
  • Kaiping Peng said the conference sought to investigate how positive psychology can improve life in China’s households, workplaces, and educational institutions


  • “We want to do more than just talk about depression and mental illness. We want to figure out how to improve people’s emotional outlooks and bring the wisdom of Buddhism and other religions to the scientific study of happiness. 我们希望做的不仅仅是说说抑郁症和心理疾病。我们要找出如何改善人们的情感观,并把佛教和其他宗教的智慧融入到有关幸福的科学研究中”
international conference on positive psychology and education
International Conference on Positive Psychology and Education国际积极心理学与教育会议
  • Aug 13-15, 2010 at Beijing Normal University
  • Sponsored by由以下单位赞助
  • the Beijing Normal University School of Psychology 北京师范大学心理学院,
  • International Positive Psychology Association (IPPA) 国际积极心理学会 ,
  • Research Center for Moral Education 道德教育研究中心 ,
  • Beijing Academy of Educational Science 北京教育科学研究院 ,
  • Journal of Mental Health Education in Middle and Junior Schools (China) and Global Chinese Positive Psychology Association and the Chinese Ministry of Education.心理健康教育杂志(中国初高中学校)和全球华人的积极心理学会与中华人民共和国教育部
two young leaders of chinese positive psychology
Two Young Leaders of Chinese Positive Psychology 两个华人积极心理学青年领袖
  • Mr Timothy So and Mr Yukun Zhao played substantial roles, reflecting generosity, kindness, and wisdom in their leadership approaches, inspiring transformational thinking.蒂莫西·苏和赵玉坤在反映慷慨,善良,和智慧在领导方法,启发思维转型上发挥了重大作用
  • Zhao and So demonstrate an ongoing spirit of willingness to contribute to the greater good for the people of China and for the rest of the world.


chinese positive psychologist mr timothy so
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Timothy So中国积极心理学家-蒂莫西·苏
  • Timothy, born in Hong Kong, is now a full-time doctoral researcher at the University of Cambridge in the UK, working with Dr. Felicia Huppert.  


  • Since the conferences Timothy and Dr. Peng, Chair of the Tsinghua University conference, have agreed that the Global Chinese Positive Psychology Association (GCPPA) founded by Timothy will partner with the Tsinghua University Science and Well-Being Research Center。


dr felicia huppert mr timothy so with research award
Dr. Felicia Huppert & Mr. Timothy So with Research Award
  • Timothy chaired a symposium on “Positive Psychology for Well-Being in Chinese Schools”


chinese schools research
Chinese Schools Research 中文学校研究
  • Timothy was invited to be one of 8 researchers approved by the China Ministry of Education to investigate character strengths, flourishing, happiness, and life satisfaction levels of about 50,000-100,000 high school students.Timothy是应邀成为由中国教育部批准的教育考察约5〜10万名高中学生生活满意度水平,性格优势,繁荣,幸福的8个研究人员之一。
  • Timothy states, “This kind of research reflects how the government and educators seriously value positive education, and their willingness to apply it in China.” Timothy指出,“这种研究反映了政府和教育工作者认真正面积极教育的价值,并愿意在中国应用。”
chinese schools research14
Chinese Schools Research …中文学校研究…
  • Timothy’s concern is that, “We as positive psychologists need to carefully ensure what we are applying; it should be around the science of well-being and the true core of positive psychology, instead of something else. It is an important responsibility.”Timothy的担忧是,“我们作为积极心理学家,需要认真确保我们所在应用的,它应该是旨在幸福科学和积极心理学的真正核心,而不是其他别的东西。这是一个重要的责任。“
chinese positive psychologist mr yu k un zhao
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Yukun Zhao中国积极心理学家-赵玉坤
  • Yukun Zhao received a Practice Accomplishment Award from the Chinese Ministry of Education.


  • Yukun affirms that China is transitioning from a traditional agricultural to a modern nation: “The scale of this transition is enormous, from political, economical, and social structures, to culture, lifestyle, and customs. Furthermore, China is doing it at a much faster pace than the West did.”


mr yukun zhao dr nansook park american positive psychologist dr nansook park
Mr. Yukun Zhao & Dr. Nansook Park (American Positive Psychologist)赵玉坤和美国著名心理学家Dr. Nansook Park
chinese positive psychologist mr yu k un zhao17
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Yukun Zhao …中国积极心理学家-赵玉坤
  • “ Many people actually don’t like the transition. The old values are broken; the new values are not there yet. Mental health has become a bigger and bigger problem in China. Confusion, depression, anxiety, distrust, and a sense of meaninglessness are widespread among Chinese people. I am one of them. Mao was still alive when I was born. When I grew up, China was changing dramatically from a socialist country to a free market. I experienced all the confusion, and I know the pain. ”
  • “很多人其实不喜欢的这样的过渡。旧的价值观被打破,新的价值还没有形成。心理健康已经成为中国越来越大的问题。困惑,抑郁,焦虑,不信任,以及无意义的感觉在中国人中是很广泛的。我也是其中之一。毛泽东还活着的时候我就出生了。当我长大了,中国发生了变化,从一个社会主义国家急剧转变到自由市场。我经历了所有的困惑,我知道的其中的痛苦。 “
chinese positive psychologist mr yu k un zhao18
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Yukun Zhao …中国积极心理学家-赵玉坤
  • “I want to help make Chinese people happier and China a better place for ordinary people just like me to live.”


  • His biggest motivation is “to help people whose pain I suffered, and I am especially eager because I think NOW is the best time to disseminate positive psychology in China. I think it’s time for science to help people not only materially, but also psychologically.”


chinese positive psychologist mr yu k un zhao19
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Yukun Zhao …中国积极心理学家-赵玉坤
  • “Many of the Chinese educators were introduced to the concept of Positive Education, or even Positive Psychology for the first time. Most have told me that they WILL apply positive psychology in their educational work and in their schools.”  


  • Yukun believes positive psychology is good medicine for his culture, and he has strong faith in science.


chinese positive psychologist mr yu k un zhao20
Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Yukun Zhao …中国积极心理学家-赵玉坤
  • Zhao describes the Chinese Positive Education “Action Plan” :赵描述了中国积极教育的“行动计划”
    • Surveying the character strengths of youth


    • Training teachers in positive education and positive psychology 对教师进行积极心理学的培训
    • Testing positive education in some selected schools, improve it constantly, expand it as it becomes better

测试在某些选定的学校积极教育情况,不断改进,扩大它, 直到它变得更好

    • Teaching positive psychology to mental health workers in schools 对学校里的心理健康工作者进行积极心理学教育
future chinese positive psychologist mr xie jianjun mark
Future Chinese Positive Psychologist Mr. Xie Jianjun (Mark)中国未来的积极心理学家-谢建军
  • Bachelor Degree in Human Resource Management Strategy (psychology major)本科学历,人力资源管理策略(心理学专业)
  • Master Degree in Developmental and Educational Psychology (Positive Psychology major) (Shenzhen University)硕士发展与教育心理学(积极心理学专业)(深圳大学)
  • Presented paper at China International Conference on Positive Psychology曾在中国国际积极心理学会议上提交的论文
revision of positive psychology course so far
Revision of Positive Psychology course so far 积极心理学课程修订至今
science of well being
Science of Well-Being 幸福科学
  • Positive Psychology is all about measuring SWB (overall happiness)积极心理学是关于主观幸福感测量(整体幸福)
  • And finding ways to sustainably raise it!并设法持续提高它!
  • daily data on life satisfaction through 2008, courtesy of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index

Dr. Ekman’s System of Emotions最初情绪分类

  • Happiness 喜, Anger 怒, Sadness 哀, Fear 惧, Surprise 惊喜, Disgust 厌恶, Amusement 有乐趣, Contempt 鄙视, Contentment 知足, Embarrassment 尴尬, Excitement 激动, Guilt 罪恶感, Pride in achievement 成就感, Relief 解脱, Satisfaction 满意, Sensory pleasure 感觉很高兴, Shame 耻辱
definitions of happiness
Definitions of Happiness幸福的定义

Aristotle describes happiness as “an expression of the soul in considered actions”. 亚里士多德将幸福描述为“一个灵魂在考虑行动”

Freud describes happiness as a matter of lieben und arbeiten (to love and to work). 弗洛伊德把幸福描述为去爱和去工作.

Dr. Ben-Shahar (2007):“the overall experience of pleasure and meaning (present benefit and future benefit)”.将幸福定义为“快乐的体验和生活的意义(当前利益和未来利益).

“Happiness is a form of courage 幸福是勇气的一种形式” Holbrook Jackson

lyubomirsky s system
Lyubomirsky’s System

Happiness =the experience of joy, contentment or positive well-being + a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worthwhile

Happiness = 50% Genetic Set Point +

10% Life Circumstances +

40% Intentional Activities

H = 50% GSP + 10% LC + 40% IA

lyubomirsky s happiness equation h 50 gsp 10 lc 40 ia
Lyubomirsky’s Happiness EquationH = 50% GSP + 10% LC + 40% IA

Life circumstances 生活条件10%

Genetic Set Point 遗传点 50%




Intentional Activities 策划的活动 40%

happiness profiles based on ben shahar 2007

Happiness Profiles 幸福概况(based on Ben-Shahar, 2007)

Can be TOO happy, lacking credibility!!!


Cultivating strengths; appreciatively grateful; enjoying fun, flow, meaningful purpose & journey towards goals in present; realistic optimist for future; content with past; resilient in setbacks

Future pleasure未来的快乐

Rat Racer


Sacrifice present for the future; Never ending “arrival fallacy (谬论)”

Future Benefit

Detriment损害(Lack of pleasure 缺乏乐趣

Optimal Zone

Present Detriment

Present Benefit

Present pleasure 目前快乐

Future Detriment



Neither enjoys present or has sense of future purpose;

Learned helplessness



Seeks pleasures of present,

Lacks purpose; unfulfilled;

“Floating moment fallacy”

Detriment 损害(Lack of meaning 缺乏意义)

5 ways to raise baseline levels of happiness 5 lagac
5 Ways to raise baseline levels of happiness5种方法,以提高对幸福的基准水平 - LaGac
  • Keep Learning, especially to use our own unique personality drive and strengths in new ways. 不断的学习,特别是用新的、我们自己独特的个性潜力和优势的方式.
  • Appreciate, Notice, and savour good things, meaningful relationships and happy times, especially laughing. 感谢,注意,尽情享受美好的东西,有意义的关系和快乐的时光,尤其是笑.
  • Connect with others and devote quality time to relationships, learn interpersonal skills.与他人,在人际关系上投入黄金时间,学习人际技巧.
  • Keep Active every day, walk up and down stairs, do yoga, play games, anything to keep moving. 每天保持活力,步行上下楼梯,做瑜伽,玩游戏等其他任何事以继续前进.
  • Give and be grateful for what we have been given, verbally and by writing notes and messages. 用口头、书面笔记和信息对我们拥有的东西表示感谢.
wong s radical positive psychology system
Wong’s Radical Positive Psychology System 积极心理学体系

International terrorism 国际恐怖主义

World hunger 世界饥饿

Ethno-geographical wars 民族地域的战争

Devastating poverty 毁灭性的贫困

Natural disasters 自然灾害

Pandemics 大流行

  • What does life demand? of us individually and collectively? 生活对于我们个人地和全体地来说的需求是什么?
  • What is our responsibility to society and humanity? 我们对于社会和人性的责任是什么?
  • What can we empower people in desperation to find meaning, engagement, hope and happiness? 我们可以用什么使人们在绝望中找到意义,参与,希望和幸福呢?
  • How can we promote peace, harmony and well-being in the world?如何才能促进和平,和谐和幸福的世界福利?

Depression epidemic 抑郁症疫情

Radical fundamentalism 激进的原教旨主义

AIDS, Malaria, TB, Super Bugs 艾滋,疟疾,结核病,超级臭虫

Oppressive regimes 暴虐政权

Widening gap between rich and poor 日益扩大的贫富差距

Climate change droughts & floods 干旱气候变化与洪水

seligman s positive psychology system seligman s
Seligman’s Positive Psychology System Seligman’s 积极心理学体系

Positive Psychology studies human flourishing or thriving


Happiness = Life Satisfaction生活满意度

幸福= Subjective Well Being主观幸福感 (SWB)

SWB= 10% Pleasure 乐趣(Pl) +

40% Engagement in Life 参与生命(En) +

50% Life Meaning Purpose有意义的生活目的(MP)

SWB = 10% Pl + 40% En + 50% MP

seligman s positive psychology system swb 10 30 pl 30 40 en 40 50 mp
Seligman’s Positive Psychology SystemSWB = 10-30%Pl + 30-40%En + 40-50%MP

Life Meaning/Purpose



10%- 30%



Engagement in Life参与生命30-40%

seligman s positive psychology system swb 10 30 pl 30 40 en 40 50 mp33
Seligman’s Positive Psychology System SWB = 10-30%Pl + 30-40%En + 40-50%MP
  • Increase happiness ofpleasure by 增加快乐幸福感如以下:
    • Optimistic planning for future pleasure 对于未来有乐观的计划
    • Appreciative savouring to amplify experience of pleasure 欣赏品味放大体验身边的快乐
    • Contented remembering (e.g. photos) of past pleasure对于过去快乐的记忆(如附图)


seligman s positive psychology system swb 10 30 pl 30 40 en 40 50 mp34
Seligman’s Positive Psychology System SWB = 10-30%Pl + 30-40%En + 40-50%MP
  • Increase happiness ofengagement by determining character strengths and using them in new ways, especially for flow in work, family, friendships, study, career, community involvement, etc.利用决定性格的优势和新的方法来增加参与的幸福感,尤其是在工作,家庭,友谊,学习,事业,社会参与,等等。

Engagement in Life参与生命30-40%

seligman s positive psychology system swb 10 30 pl 30 40 en 40 50 mp35
Seligman’s Positive Psychology System SWB = 10-30%Pl + 30-40%En + 40-50%MP
  • Increase happiness oflife meaning/purpose by setting and planning goals (personal, professional, family & community) in all major areas of life, then living faithfully to fulfil theme and reviewing them regularly 利用在生活中所有方面制定计划(包括个人的,专业的,家庭和社会)来增加生活意义/目的的快乐,然后真诚地生活来实现目标并定期地回顾。

Life Meaning/Purpose


examples of interventions rituals
Examples of Interventions (Rituals)举例干预(仪式)

Writing about 3 good things and 1 good person every night 每晚写下3件快乐的事情和一个遇到的好人

Smiling deep breaths 10 times daily每天微笑着做深呼吸10次

Mindfulness meditation 20 minutes daily 每个早晨深思20分钟

Gratitude letters and ‘saying thanks’before food and sleep 感谢信和在吃饭及睡觉前“说谢谢”

Making social times with people every day每天腾一些交际时间与人相处

Watching comedies, telling jokes every day, laughing out loud每天看喜剧,讲笑话,并且笑出声来 …


1. Watch comedies, telling jokes every day, laughing out loud 看喜剧,每天都在讲笑话,笑出声来

  • 5. Give plentifully, even if only a smile or compliment 给丰满,即使只是一个微笑,赞美
  • 4. Write gratitude letters & notes 写感谢信及债券
  • Spiritual rituals daily and weekly fellowship 每天和每周的精神仪式奖学金
  • 1. Practice life-long learning 实践终身学习
  • Write about 3 good things & 1 good person every night 每晚写下3件快乐的事情
  • 2. 30–60 minutes physical activity each day 分钟的体力活动,每天

Interventions (Rituals)to Raise Well-Being干预(仪式)提升幸福感

  • Deep smiling breaths 10 times daily每天微笑着做深呼吸10次
  • 3. Connect with friends & loved ones 就可以与朋友和心爱的人
  • Make social times with people every day跟人小'日期'每一天
  • Say ‘thanks’before food & sleep感谢信和'谢谢你这么说'之前的食物和睡眠
  • 4. Appreciate daily & notice nature, seasons and small things 特别是欣赏大自然,季节和小东西
  • Mindfulness meditation daily 每个早晨深思钟30-60分钟的体力活动,每天
smart goal setting for enhanced meaning and purpose in life smart
SMART Goal Setting for Enhanced Meaning and Purpose in Life 为提高生活意义和目的的SMART目标

Important to Set and Keep your Goals重要的是确定并保持您的目标

Attainable 可实现

Measurable 可测量

Relevant 有关

Time Bound时限

Specific 具体

e.g. I privately spend 20 minutes daily and also meet for 60 minutes weekly with a group dedicated to the most important thing I value in life (e.g. greening the earth, spirituality, compassion, politics) for at least 1 year 我每天花了20分钟同时达到每周90分钟和朋友致力于实现我们生活和这个世界中最重要的事情(如绿化大地,灵性,同情,政治),要至少持续3年。

the meaningful life 60 of life satisfaction 60 seligman 2002
The Meaningful Life60% of Life Satisfaction 生活满足感的60% (Seligman, 2002)
  • How do you find a deep meaning in life? 你如何在生活中找到深层的意义?
  • The easiest way is to practice religion (such as going to church, mosque or temple) or practice spirituality such as meditation or yoga, especially with other people. 最简单的方法是实行宗教(如去教堂,清真寺或寺庙)或练习精神方法,如冥想或瑜珈,特别是与其他 人一起做 。
  • This brings many powerful benefits – 1. Social support; 2. Healthy lifestyle; 3. Personal integration; 4. Coping strategies; 5. Sense of purpose; 6. Not alone on our journey. 这 带来了很多强大的好处 - 1。社会支持; 2。健康的生活方式; 3。个人完整; 4。应对策略5。意识的目的; 6。人生旅途上并不孤单。
  • These 6 things are very important!这6个东西很重 要!

O'Brien, Elaine. (2010, Sep. 2) Happiness and Positive Education in China. Accessed Online 30 Oct. 2010http://positivepsychologynews.com/news/elaine-obrien/2010090213318

O'Brien, Elaine. (2010, Oct. 31) Spotlight on Two Dynamos of China. Accessed Online 30 Oct. 2010http://positivepsychologynews.com/news/elaine-obrien/2010103114063

Wolfers,  Justin. (200, January 2) An Unhappy Year. In The New York Times. Accessed Online 5 Nov. 2010http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/02/an-unhappy-year/