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Developmental Stages of Lambs. Dr. Dan Morrical Iowa State University. Development Stages of Lamb Digestive System. Birth - 3 weeks pre-ruminant 3-8 weeks - psuedo ruminant 8 weeks & on - ruminant. Birth: Solely dependent on milk. Composition of ewes milk: 18.2% dry matter

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Developmental Stages of Lambs

  • Dr. Dan Morrical

  • Iowa State University


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Development Stages of Lamb Digestive System

  • Birth - 3 weeks pre-ruminant

  • 3-8 weeks - psuedo ruminant

  • 8 weeks & on - ruminant


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Birth: Solely dependent on milk

  • Composition of ewes milk:

  • 18.2% dry matter

  • 5-7% fat

  • 24.7% crude protein

  • 26.4% lactose

  • 7.5 mg/lb Vit E

  • 11 IU /lb Vit E


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Milk Yield and Composition Impact Lamb Performance

  • •Higher milk fat leads to increase energy intake

  • •ISU creep trials: 16, 21 & 26% CP

  • No variation in performance

  • •Megalac increases milk fat


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Creep Diets

  • Palatable

  • -Corn

  • -Soybean meal

  • -Molasses

  • Roughage is of minimal value

  • Lambs get adequate roughage intake from ewe diets


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Creep Diets

  • •Easily digestible

  • •15-20% crude protein

  • •Added fat


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Creep Ration

Corn 1470

SBM 49% 370

Molasses 100

Limestone 40

TM salt 10

Ammonium sulfate 10

CTC 50 grams

Selenium .2 grams

Vitamin A 1,000,000 IU

Vitamin D 100,000 IU

Vitamin E 35,000 IU

Zinc 136 grams

Crude protein 16.7%

TDN 83.4%

Calcium .84%

Phosphorous .38%


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Ration Physical Characterics

  • Very young lambs Meal form

  • 3-8 weeks Medium grind

  • 8-12 weeks Coarse grind

  • >12 weeks Whole grains


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Nutrient Requirements

  • Factors :

  • Sex

  • Lean Growth Potential

  • Weight


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Composition of Gain

  • Rams Lambs Superior

  • Wethers Intermediate

  • Ewe Lambs Poorest


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Mature Size

  • Lambs are market ready at 65% of average mature weight of ewes of parent breeds.

    • 220 lb. sire + 180 lb. dam = 400 ÷ 2 = 200.

    • 200 x .65% = 130.


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% Protein Concentration of Lamb Rations

ADG

Lamb Wt..50.60.70.80

40 15.9 17.0 18.6 20.4

55 13.4 14.7 15.8 16.9

70 12.8 13.9 14.7 15.5

85 12.0 12.7 13.4 14.3

100 11.4 11.9 12.6 13.3

115 10.8 11.4 11.9 12.5


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Protein Quantity and Quality

  • Very young lambs -

  • solely dependent on feed protein

  • for quality and quantity

  • Ruminant

    • -Protein quality depends on

    • Feed origin

    • Bacterial origin


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Ruminant - Protein Quantity

  • •Intake

  • •Microbial yield

  • -impacted by energy intake

  • -rumen ammonia level

  • -liquid dilution rate


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Rumen Bacteria

  • Cellulolytic - Fiber digesters

  • Amylolytic - Starch digesters

  • Proteolytic - Bacterial protein digesters


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Lamb Intake

  • Controlled by:

    • Fill

    • Energy

  • Low concentrate diets -- fill

  • High concentrate diets -- energy


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Specific Nutrients

Vit E. 30,000 IU/ton

Se .3 ppm

Ca .48

P .24

Salt .5-1.0%


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What Type of Ration

  • 1. Targeted marketing date.

  • 2. Relative costs of nutrients.

  • 3. Compositional goal.

  • 4. Facility size.

  • 5. Feed processing equipment & storage.

  • 6. Feeding system.


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Simplest System

  • Whole corn: Pelleted Protein Supplement.

  • Advantages:

  • -Superior feed efficiency

  • -Self fed

  • -Low processing costs

  • -Low cost diet

  • -Acidosis risk


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Simplest System...continued

  • Disadvantages:

  • -Sorting

  • -Slower gains

  • -Quality of protein supplement

  • -Cash expense for protein


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High Hay Rations

  • Advantages:

  • -Minimal cash outlay

  • -Value added to hay crop

  • -Improved composition

  • Disadvantages:

  • -Lower ADG

  • -More facilities, bunks and pens

  • -Hay waste


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Weaned Lamb Performance on Grass

  • Factors - Forage Species

  • Grass vs. legumes

  • -Age of lamb

  • -Health of lambs

  • -Condition of lambs


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Lamb Gains on Straight Grass

  • .20 - .25 pounds per day

  • .35 - .50 w/pound supplementation

  • Conversion 1:10 t0 1:5


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Escape Protein for Pasture Lambs

  • Sources:

  • •Blood Meal

  • •Fish Meal

  • •Corn Gluten Meal


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Nursing Lamb Performance on Grass

  • Milk Production is Key

  • 1. Rotational grazing

    • a. high quality and quantity of forage

    • b. reduced competition between ewe & offspring

  • 2. Creep Feeding

    • a. improved growth

    • b. allows coccidia control

    • c. increases cost of production


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