Coal. Types of Coal. Anthracite
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Anthracite is coal with the highest carbon content, between 86 and 98 percent, and a heat value of nearly 15,000 BTUs-per-pound. Most frequently associated with home heating, anthracite is a very small segment of the U.S. coal market. There are 7.3 billion tons of anthracite reserves in the United States, found mostly in 11 northeastern counties in Pennsylvania.
The most plentiful form of coal in the United States, bituminous coal is used primarily to generate electricity and make coke for the steel industry. The fastest growing market for coal, though still a small one, is supplying heat for industrial processes. Bituminous coal has a carbon content ranging from 45 to 86 percent carbon and a heat value of 10,500 to 15,500 BTUs-per-pound.
Ranking below bituminous is subbituminous coal with 35-45 percent carbon content and a heat value between 8,300 and 13,000 BTUs-per-pound. Reserves are located mainly in a half-dozen Western states and Alaska. Although its heat value is lower, this coal generally has a lower sulfur content than other types, which makes it attractive for use because it is cleaner burning.
Lignite is a geologically young coal which has the lowest carbon content, 25-35 percent, and a heat value ranging between 4,000 and 8,300 BTUs-per-pound. Sometimes called brown coal, it is mainly used for electric power generation.
Oil on canvas by Roman Verostko
Jenkins KY was build by Consolidation Coal Company after having purchased 100,000 acres in Pike, Letcher and Floyd Counties.
Main Street, 1920
Labor was the “variable capital” which could be cut during the economic downturns that have always plagued the industry.
Miners were paid in “scrip” which could only be redeemed at the company store.
They were treated by company doctors and led in worship by company preachers.
Low pay, cheating on wages due, high prices for goods at the company store, high rents, and poor safety conditions all contribute to the labor wars in the coalfields.
In 1902 the UMWA achieved its first success in the Kanawha-New River coalfield. The operators organized and hired Baldwin-Felts to break the union.
The miners were evicted from their homes. They set up their own tent camp.
Several battles ensued between agents of the companies and miners. National Guardsmen were called in three times.
The next major battle began in 1919 in Mingo and Logan Counties. Law enforcement, with company paid deputies, harassed suspected union men.
The Brookside mine strike against Duke Power occurred 1973-74. It is documented in Harlan County, USA and celebrated in Showtime’s Harlan Co. Wars.
The mechanization of mining is the current threat to the continuation of a significant work force.
From the 1950’s through the 1970’s opposition to surface or strip mining grew.
seam of coal.