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Coal. By Ireland Tawney , Sierra Bickford, Hannah Bassett, Lily Scammon. Info. LOCATION many coastal mines not all coastal scattered around the world. AGE-(Price) Age: Devonian Period (400 mya ) Two major coal forming periods Pennsylvanian Paleocene Price:

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slide1

Coal

By Ireland Tawney, Sierra Bickford, Hannah Bassett, Lily Scammon

slide2
Info

LOCATION

  • many coastal mines
  • not all coastal
  • scattered around the world

AGE-(Price)

  • Age:
  • Devonian Period (400 mya)
  • Two major coal forming periods
    • Pennsylvanian
    • Paleocene
  • Price:
  • Depends on the mine or location where coal comes from
  • January 4, 2013 (per short ton)
    • Central Appalachian- $68.05
    • Powder River Basin - $10.45
    • Illinois Basin - $47.90
how coal is formed
How Coal is Formed
  • Fossil Fuel
  • Most formed 400 million years ago, Devonian Period
  •  Plants die  sink to bottom of swamp  creates peat buried by erosion sedimentary rocks form pressure, heat, and time forces out water and oxygen coal is formed.
  •  Newest coal formed 1 million years ago, oldest 400 million years ago
  • 40-90% of weight is carbon
  •  Estimate 3-7 feet of compact plant matter= 1 foot of bituminous coal 
what is it
What is it?
  • A combustible rock consisting mainly of carbonized plant matter
  • Five types of coal
    • Peat
    • Lignite
    • Subbituminous coal
    • Bituminous coal
    • Anthracite coal
  • Described by rank and grade
  • Coal is worth more the less ash left in it (most commercial is 3-9% ash)
  • Some trace elements are sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates, and arsenic  
how it works
How it Works
  • Gets energy from the sunlight absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis
  •  Energy already exists in coal
  •   Needs heat for an activation energy
  •  Heat breaks chemical bonds created during fossilization- released heat

Coal to Electricity

  •  Energy released in heat causes water to boil boiling water creates steam steam creates pressure pressure spins generator turbine spinning motion turns electrical generator= electricity
coal mining process
Coal Mining Process
  • Types of mining-
  • Surface mining
  •     Underground mining
  • Longwall mining
  • Conventional mining
  • Underground
  • Drift
  • Slope
  • Shaft
coal power plant
Coal power Plant
  • Coal is put in burner to produce heat

The Thermodynamic Process

  • Heat boils water in the boiler to produce steam
  • The steam is then piped to a turbine
  • The turbine rotates
  • Produce electricity
  • Repeat the cycle
effects on environment
Effects on Environment
  • Coal is a chemically complex fuel
  • Mining coal releases dust/gas into the air
  • Particles of ash called “fly ash” released
  • Sulfur combines with oxygen
  • Forms sulfur dioxide
  • Major air pollution if emitted in large quantities
  • Surface of land is disrupted when mined
  • Contributes to acid rain
  • Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
  • outflow of acidic water from coal mines or metal mines (acid mine drainage)
  • air pollution from coal-fired plants
  • air pollution from coal mines
  • climate impact of coal mines/coal plants
  • coal fires (3% of worlds annual carbon dioxide emission)
  • combustion waste (worlds second largest waste stream)
  • coal sludge (liquid coal waste from washing coal containing toxins)
citations
Citations
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=coal+mines&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=857C766A7EA2226C5F848BDA8DD0788118D414B0&selectedIndex=4
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=coal+mines&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=FC35E794F4722DB383FE346F590D2815CF9EEB79&selectedIndex=5
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=south+korean+capital+pollution&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=54DCDC0B8E7387F6C9BED47408A2B0524BB1DCA3&selectedIndex=0
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=earth+map+of+coal+mine&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=earth+map+of+coal+mine&sc=0-0&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=B9E73522EAFC19028C1AB856CBFCDCCEA1CCBDE8&selectedIndex=5
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=how+coal+is+made&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=E4FF4401F47A139C06B672450C3BF5ADBA8A7168&selectedIndex=1
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=coal&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=8BA9EBBC75BB8E208EDC81ABCC81C5CDD420265A&selectedIndex=1
  • http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=+coal+plant&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=coal+plant&sc=8-10&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=C07F2E6B8214C0C3B731A812045E0882E9AAC05F&selectedIndex=2
  • http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/coal-mining/
  • http://www.ildceo.net/NR/rdonlyres/D54DB23B-BFCC-49D7-9D73-89448384DD94/0/Howiscoalmined2.pdf
  • http://www.google.com/imgres?q=coal+power+plant&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo=d&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS375US379&biw=1600&bih=756&tbm=isch&tbnid=R0YxBpgLJUfKDM:&imgrefurl=http://forums.appleinsider.com/t/151243/greenpeace-says-apples-clean-energy-policies-are-significantly-improved/40&docid=Gx9uDybQPfJvMM&imgurl=http://forums-cdn.appleinsider.com/c/cf/cffb4dfa_coal-fired-power-plant_media.jpeg&w=2000&h=1232&ei=JyHzUOe-Cabm0gGGr4CICw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=758&vpy=325&dur=399&hovh=158&hovw=264&tx=216&ty=120&sig=112856266099185639852&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=236&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0,i:180
  • http://www.duke-energy.com/about-energy/generating-electricity/coal-fired-how.asp
  • http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/coalweb/library/coaltime/intro.aspx
  • http://www.eia.gov/coal/news_markets/index.cfm
  • http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/coalweb/library/science/what.aspx
  • http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/coalweb/library/science/quality.aspx
  • http://www.google.com/imgres?q=what+is+coal&um=1&hl=en&tbo=d&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS375US379&biw=1600&bih=756&tbm=isch&tbnid=XuPRUvc63YekDM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal&docid=TuJGeyI_gp2pOM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Coal_anthracite.jpg/220px-Coal_anthracite.jpg&w=220&h=206&ei=0D3zUN-NJMWo0AHnyYHwBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=403&vpy=145&dur=268&hovh=164&hovw=176&tx=114&ty=58&sig=112856266099185639852&page=1&tbnh=146&tbnw=164&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:87
  • http://www.coaleducation.org/lessons/twe/envi.htm
  • http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Environmental_impacts_of_coal
  • http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/coal-mining/