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Chapter Six: Early Judaism and Christianity Early Judaism Abram / Abraham ~ 2000 – 1750 bce Leaves Ur Covenant with God Land/Protection for Worship/Obedience Sign of the covenant – circumcision Human dignity / loyalty Henotheistic Belief (Book is Wrong!) Early Judaism, cont. Moses

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early judaism
Early Judaism
  • Abram / Abraham ~ 2000 – 1750 bce
    • Leaves Ur
    • Covenant with God
      • Land/Protection for Worship/Obedience
        • Sign of the covenant – circumcision
        • Human dignity / loyalty
      • Henotheistic Belief (Book is Wrong!)
early judaism cont
Early Judaism, cont.
  • Moses
    • Exodus from Egypt
      • Passover holiday
      • Beginning of Law (Torah)
  • Enter into Canaan
early judaism cont5
Early Judaism, cont
  • Joshua
    • Brings the Hebrews into Canaan
  • Judges
    • Loose connection between tribes
slide6
Monarchy
  • Saul – 1st king
  • David
    • Expanded territory
    • Jerusalem as capitol
  • Solomon
    • Builds 1st Temple
slide8
Split Kingdom
  • Northern Kingdom of Israel
    • 721 – falls to Assyrians
  • Southern Kingdom of Judah
    • 581 – falls to Babylonians
    • Temple destroyed
    • Babylonian Captivity
new influences ideas
New Influences / Ideas
  • Return from Babylon
    • Synagogue worship
    • Satan as adversary (Zoroastrianism)
    • Rebuild the Temple
  • Hellenistic Influences
    • Gnosis
    • Body/soul dichotomy
    • Immortality of the soul
end of jewish rule
End of Jewish Rule
  • Independence won by Judah Maccabee
    • Hanukkah
  • Roman Control of Judea (Palestine)
    • 70 ce – destruction of Jewish groups
    • Destruction of the Temple (for good)
    • Diaspora
the hebrew bible tanakh
The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh)
  • 3 major parts
    • Torah = Law : 1st 5 books
    • Nevi’im = Prophets : Next 21 books
    • Kethuvim = Writings : Last 12 books
  • Set as it is today by 90 ce
  • Septuagint (70): standard text
basic motifs of the bible
Basic Motifs of the Bible
  • Biblical Monotheism
    • God exists before the world
    • Creation ex nihilio (from nothing)
    • God pronounces creation as “good”
    • Humans are the crown of creation
    • God deeply involved in the world
    • Covenant (testament)
      • Renewed covenant = New Testament (Christianity only)
basic motifs of the bible14
Basic Motifs of the Bible
  • Ethics
    • Moral code for individuals and society
    • Ten Commandments
      • Positive commands & Prohibitions
    • Prophetic writings
      • Critics of social injustice, defenders of poor
      • Reminders of the covenant
        • Amos
        • Jeremiah
slide15

1. I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee

out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of

bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before

me.

2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy

God in vain.

3. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven

image, or any likeness of anything that is in

heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath.

Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor

serve them.

4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

5. Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days

may be long.

slide16

6. Thou shalt not kill.

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8. Thou shalt not steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness

against thy neighbor.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's

house, thou shalt not covet thy

neighbor's wife, nor his

manservant, nor anything that is

thy neighbor's.

the beginnings of christianity
The Beginnings of Christianity
  • Jewish Roots – new understandings
  • Life of Jesus
    • Gospels
  • Teachings of Jesus
    • Parables, Beatitudes
  • Jesus as Christ, the Messiah
    • Significance of resurrection
christianity spreads
Christianity Spreads
  • Saul of Tarsus (Paul)
    • Tireless missionary
    • Non-Jewish converts
    • Theological letters (epistles)
  • Social, religious factors for growth
    • Peace, facility of travel, koine, audience
    • Emphasis on salvation, freedom
    • No class distinction
christian persecution
Christian Persecution
  • Pliny the Elder / Nero’s Circus
  • Claudius, Decius, Valerian, Diocletian
  • Christians as traitors to the state
    • Refusal to express pietàs
  • Apologists
    • Justin Martyr (100-165)
  • Emperor Constantine
basic motifs of the bible22
Basic Motifs of the Bible
  • Models and types
    • Events, stories, characters as models
    • Contemporary impact of biblical tradition
      • Literature
      • Art
      • Social institutions
early jewish art
Early Jewish Art
  • Prohibition against images
    • 2nd commandment
  • Present in synagogues
early christian art
Early Christian Art
  • Catacombs, underground cemeteries
  • Frescoes
    • Salvation; Communion; Virgin and Child
  • Glass and Sculpture
    • Christ as Good Shepherd, glass disks
    • Carved sarcophagi
  • Inscriptions
    • Name, date of death, decorative symbol
dura europas
Dura-Europas
  • Evidence of religious tolerance and coexistence
    • Religious buildings on “Wall Street”
    • Complex religious existence
  • Artistic mingling of Eastern and Roman styles
    • Precursor of Byzantine art
constantine and early christian architecture
Constantine and Early Christian Architecture
  • Emperor Constantine (C.E. 306-337)
    • Edict of Toleration
  • Basilica-Style Churches
    • Current site of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican)
    • Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)
      • Jesus’ burial site
chapter six discussion questions
Chapter Six: Discussion Questions
  • Discuss contemporary examples that illustrate the permeation of the biblical tradition in our culture.
  • Explain why Nero and other Roman emperors were unwilling to tolerate Christianity. From a political standpoint, was the severity of punishment inflicted on Christians warranted? Why or why not?
  • Consider the archeological findings of Dura-Europos. In what ways does history over-simplify past events? In two thousand years, what will future generations assume about our culture, religions, and religious tolerance? Explain.