Chapter one
1 / 18

Chapter One - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter One. Special Education in Context: People, Concepts, and Perspectives. Key Ideas. Classrooms are made up of diverse learners Person first language is essential Attitudes are powerful Exceptionality is always relative to the social or cultural context in which it occurs

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter One' - johana

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter one

Chapter One

Special Education in Context:

People, Concepts, and Perspectives

Key ideas
Key Ideas

  • Classrooms are made up of diverse learners

  • Person first language is essential

  • Attitudes are powerful

  • Exceptionality is always relative to the social or cultural context in which it occurs

  • Exceptionality is determined when compared against a set of norms

Definitions and terminology
Definitions and Terminology

  • Disability

    • Limitations imposed on an individual (physical, cognitive, sensory, emotional, learning difficulties, etc.)

  • Handicap

    • Impact of the disability (social marginalization, discrimination due to perceptions, etc.)

Classroom suggestions
Classroom Suggestions

  • Focus on the person rather than the disability

  • Avoid “super achiever” and other stereotypes

  • Avoid terms of pity such as “afflicted with” or “suffers from” and generic labels like “the retarded”

  • Use people first language such as “boy with mental retardation”

More classroom suggestions
More Classroom Suggestions

  • Use language that affirms ability such as “uses a wheelchair” rather than “wheelchair bound”

  • Use correct terminology rather than euphemisms

  • Don’t confuse disease with disability

  • Portray people with disabilities as active participants in life and in society

Important terms
Important Terms

  • Developmental Delay

  • At-Risk

  • Special Education

  • Related Services

Thirteen categories of disability



Developmental delay

Emotional disturbance

Hearing impairments

Mental retardation

Multiple disabilities

Orthopedic impairments

Other health impairments

Specific learning disabilities

Speech or language impairments

Traumatic brain injury

Visual impairments including blindness

Thirteen Categories of Disability

Pros and cons of labeling individuals with special needs
Pros and Cons of Labeling Individuals with Special Needs

Number of students receiving special education services 1976 2006
Number of Students Receiving Special Education Services (1976-2006)

Number of students ages 6 21 receiving special education 2005 2006
Number of Students Ages 6-21Receiving Special Education (2005-2006)

Pioneering contributors to the development of special education
Pioneering Contributors to the Development of Special Education

Jacob Rodrigues Pereine (1715-1780)

Phillippe Pinel (1745-1826)

Jean Marc-Gaspard (1775-1838)

Thomas Gallaudet (1787-1851)

Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887)

Louis Braille (1809-1852)

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1992)

Alfred Binet (1857-1911)

Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Examples of related services

Physical therapy



Speech and language


Recreational therapy

Orientation and mobility

Interpreting services

Occupational therapy



Social work

Vocational education

Rehabilitation counseling

Parent counseling

School nurse services

Examples of Related Services

American history
American History

  • Institutions and Asylums

    • Social perceptions and beliefs of the time period

  • Special Education Classes in Public Schools

    • Began to develop in 1860s

    • Began as separate facilities then

      self-contained classrooms

    • Legislation and litigation

    • Inclusion

Successful partnerships
Successful Partnerships

  • Family participation

  • Collaboration and Consultation

  • Service delivery teams:

    • Multidisciplinary teams

    • Interdisciplinary teams

    • Transdisciplinary teams

  • Cooperative teaching

Universal design for learning
Universal Design for Learning

  • Universal Design for Learning can be simply stated as “the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their ability to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, and remember” (Orkwis & McLane, 1998, p. 9).

Three essential qualities of universal design for learning
Three Essential Qualities of Universal Design for Learning

Exceptionality across the life span
Exceptionality Across the Life Span

  • Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Special Needs

    • Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)

    • Early Intervention (EI) (birth to age 2)

    • Early childhood special education (age 3-5)

  • Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    • Transition

    • Transition Services

    • Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)

    • Transition challenges and concerns