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Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics Section A: Computer Basics Computer Concepts 7th Edition Parsons/Oja What is a computer? Computer refers to a device that performs four functions: accepts input processes data stores data produces output

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Chapter 1 computer internet web and e mail basics l.jpg

Chapter 1Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

Section A: Computer Basics

Computer Concepts 7th EditionParsons/Oja


What is a computer l.jpg
What is a computer?

  • Computer refers to a device that performs four functions:

    • accepts input

    • processes data

    • stores data

    • produces output

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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What is a computer?

1. INPUT

  • Inputmeans to feed information into a computer

  • Input can be typed, submitted or transmitted to a computer system

    • Words and symbols in a document

    • Numbers for a calculation

    • Pictures

  • An input device gathers input and transforms it into a series of electronic signals for the computer to store and manipulate

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


Computer basics l.jpg
Computer Basics

What is a computer?

2. PROCESSING

  • Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, ideas and objects

  • Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data

    • performing calculations

    • sorting lists and numbers

    • drawing graphs

  • A computer program is software that sets up a computer to do a specific task

  • A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU)

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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What is a computer?

3. STORAGE

  • A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing

  • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data that is waiting to be processed

  • Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis

  • Storage devices include hard drives, CD-ROMs, floppy disks, etc.

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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Computer Basics

What is a computer?

4. OUTPUT

  • Computer output is the results produced by the computer

    • Reports

    • Documents

    • Music

    • Graphs

    • Pictures

  • An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing

    • Printer

    • Monitor

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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What is a computer?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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Computer Basics

What is a computer?

  • Computers use stored programs

    • A series of instructions for completing a task, for example:

      • Calculating interest payments on a loan

      • Word processing

    • These instructions can be easily replaced by a different set of instructions when it’s time for a different task to be completed

      • For example, you can finish editing a report, then move onto sending an e-mail

    • This is the single most important characteristic that distinguishes a computer from other simpler devices, such as calculators

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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Computer Basics

Self Quiz Questions

  • A computer does four things:

    • _____________________

    • _____________________

    • _____________________

    • _____________________

  • _________ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data.

  • A keyboard is an example of a(n) _________ device.

  • A computer processes data in the _________ processing unit.

  • The idea of a(n) ________ program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory.

  • Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Computer Basics

    Self Quiz Answers

    • A computer does four things:

      • Accepts input

      • Processes data

      • Stores data

      • Produces output

  • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data.

  • A keyboard is an example of a(n) input device.

  • A computer processes data in the central processing unit.

  • The idea of a(n) stored program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory.

  • Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


    Computer categories l.jpg
    Computer Categories

    • Before:

      • Computers are categorized into three main categories from least powerful to most powerful:

        • microcomputers

        • minicomputers

        • mainframe computers

    • Today:

      • A computer is categorized based on its technology, function, size, performance, and cost

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Computer Categories

    • Old Computer Categories

      • Mainframe computers were the first type of computer that were very large, and were usually housed in a closet-sized metal frame

        • This term also applies to a category of large, expensive computers that were sold to big corporations and government agencies

      • Minicomputers (1968) were smaller, less expensive, and less powerful than mainframes, and were used by small businesses

      • Microcomputers (1971) were a newer type of computer whose CPU had a single chip, called a microprocessor

    • Today, just about any computer, no matter how large or small, uses one or more microprocessors as its CPU – so these terms are no longer valid

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Computer Categories

    • Today’s Computer Categories

      • Personal computers

      • Handheld computers

      • Workstations

      • Videogame Consoles

      • Mainframes

      • Supercomputers

      • Servers

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What is a Personal Computer?

    • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the computing needs of an individual

      • Desktop computers

      • Notebook (or “laptop”) computers

      • Cost starts at $500, but most spend $1000 to $1200

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What is a handheld?

    • A handheld computer is one that is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it

    • Also called a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)

      • Send and receive e-mail

      • Use maps and global positioning

      • Maintain expense account, contacts, to-do lists, memos, etc.

      • Make voice calls using cellular service

    • Designed to be a computing accessory, not your main computer

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What types of computers can be classified as workstations?

    • The term “workstation” has two meanings

      • Powerful desktop models designed for specialized tasks, such as 3D graphics

      • Ordinary personal computers connected to a local area network

    • A computer network is two or more computers or other devices that are connected for the purpose of sharing data and programs

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Is a PlayStation a computer?

    • A videogame system (i.e. Sony’s Playstation) is a computer, but typically it has not been considered a computer category because of its history as a dedicated game device that connects to a TV set and provides only a pair of joysticks for input

    • Today’s videogame systems contain microprocessors that are equivalent to those found in a fast personal computer, as they are equipped to produce graphics that rival those on sophisticated workstations

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What is so special about a mainframe computer?

    • A mainframe computer is a large and expensive computer that is capable of passing data simultaneously to many users

      • Can cost over $1 million

    • Used by governments and large corporations to provide centralized storage

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    How powerful is a supercomputer?

    • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers in the world, at the time of construction

      • Breaking codes

      • Modeling weather systems

      • Simulating nuclear explosions

      • Research simulations

    • A $100 million supercomputer scheduled for completion in 2005 is designed to use 1 million microprocessors, and will process over 1 quadrillion operations per second

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What makes a computer a server?

    • A server serves the computers on a network by supplying them with data or resources (Internet, network files, printing, e-mail, etc.)

    • A client receives data or uses resources from a server

    • Any computer can be a server or a client

    • High performance servers are needed when there is a need for lots of users and rapid response

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What’s a personal computer system?

    • A personal computer system consists of the following:

      • System unit: case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices

      • Display device: Monitor or LCD screen

      • Keyboard: Primary input device

      • Mouse: Secondary input device

      • Floppy disk drive: Storage for small amounts of data

      • Hard disk drive: Storage for large amounts of data

      • CD and DVD drives: Storage or audio

      • Sound card and speakers: Plays audio

      • Modem: Connects to the Internet

      • Peripheral devices: Printers, scanners, etc.

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


    What is a personal computer system l.jpg
    What is a personal computer system?

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Personal Computer Systems

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    What is a peripheral device?

    • A peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality

      • Printer

      • Digital camera

      • Scanner

      • Joystick

      • Graphics tablet

    Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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    Computer Basics

    Self Quiz Questions

    • The three old categories of computers were

      • __________________

      • __________________

      • __________________

  • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of __________ computers.

  • Microsoft’s Xbox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True or false?

  • A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) __________.

  • The ___________ is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system.

  • Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


    Computer basics26 l.jpg
    Computer Basics

    Self Quiz Answers

    • The three old categories of computers were

      • Mainframe

      • Minicomputer

      • Microcomputer

  • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of personal computers.

  • Microsoft’s XBox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True

  • A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) client .

  • The system unit is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system.

  • Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


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