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Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

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  1. Chapter 1Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics Section A: Computer Basics Computer Concepts 7th EditionParsons/Oja

  2. What is a computer? • Computer refers to a device that performs four functions: • accepts input • processes data • stores data • produces output Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  3. What is a computer? 1. INPUT • Inputmeans to feed information into a computer • Input can be typed, submitted or transmitted to a computer system • Words and symbols in a document • Numbers for a calculation • Pictures • An input device gathers input and transforms it into a series of electronic signals for the computer to store and manipulate • Keyboard • Mouse Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  4. Computer Basics What is a computer? 2. PROCESSING • Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, ideas and objects • Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data • performing calculations • sorting lists and numbers • drawing graphs • A computer program is software that sets up a computer to do a specific task • A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU) Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  5. What is a computer? 3. STORAGE • A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data that is waiting to be processed • Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis • Storage devices include hard drives, CD-ROMs, floppy disks, etc. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  6. Computer Basics What is a computer? 4. OUTPUT • Computer output is the results produced by the computer • Reports • Documents • Music • Graphs • Pictures • An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing • Printer • Monitor Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  7. What is a computer? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  8. Computer Basics What is a computer? • Computers use stored programs • A series of instructions for completing a task, for example: • Calculating interest payments on a loan • Word processing • These instructions can be easily replaced by a different set of instructions when it’s time for a different task to be completed • For example, you can finish editing a report, then move onto sending an e-mail • This is the single most important characteristic that distinguishes a computer from other simpler devices, such as calculators Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  9. Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions • A computer does four things: • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _________ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data. • A keyboard is an example of a(n) _________ device. • A computer processes data in the _________ processing unit. • The idea of a(n) ________ program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  10. Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers • A computer does four things: • Accepts input • Processes data • Stores data • Produces output • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data. • A keyboard is an example of a(n) input device. • A computer processes data in the central processing unit. • The idea of a(n) stored program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  11. Computer Categories • Before: • Computers are categorized into three main categories from least powerful to most powerful: • microcomputers • minicomputers • mainframe computers • Today: • A computer is categorized based on its technology, function, size, performance, and cost Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  12. Computer Categories • Old Computer Categories • Mainframe computers were the first type of computer that were very large, and were usually housed in a closet-sized metal frame • This term also applies to a category of large, expensive computers that were sold to big corporations and government agencies • Minicomputers (1968) were smaller, less expensive, and less powerful than mainframes, and were used by small businesses • Microcomputers (1971) were a newer type of computer whose CPU had a single chip, called a microprocessor • Today, just about any computer, no matter how large or small, uses one or more microprocessors as its CPU – so these terms are no longer valid Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  13. Computer Categories • Today’s Computer Categories • Personal computers • Handheld computers • Workstations • Videogame Consoles • Mainframes • Supercomputers • Servers Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  14. What is a Personal Computer? • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the computing needs of an individual • Desktop computers • Notebook (or “laptop”) computers • Cost starts at $500, but most spend $1000 to $1200 Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  15. What is a handheld? • A handheld computer is one that is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it • Also called a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) • Send and receive e-mail • Use maps and global positioning • Maintain expense account, contacts, to-do lists, memos, etc. • Make voice calls using cellular service • Designed to be a computing accessory, not your main computer Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  16. What types of computers can be classified as workstations? • The term “workstation” has two meanings • Powerful desktop models designed for specialized tasks, such as 3D graphics • Ordinary personal computers connected to a local area network • A computer network is two or more computers or other devices that are connected for the purpose of sharing data and programs Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  17. Is a PlayStation a computer? • A videogame system (i.e. Sony’s Playstation) is a computer, but typically it has not been considered a computer category because of its history as a dedicated game device that connects to a TV set and provides only a pair of joysticks for input • Today’s videogame systems contain microprocessors that are equivalent to those found in a fast personal computer, as they are equipped to produce graphics that rival those on sophisticated workstations Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  18. What is so special about a mainframe computer? • A mainframe computer is a large and expensive computer that is capable of passing data simultaneously to many users • Can cost over $1 million • Used by governments and large corporations to provide centralized storage Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  19. How powerful is a supercomputer? • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers in the world, at the time of construction • Breaking codes • Modeling weather systems • Simulating nuclear explosions • Research simulations • A $100 million supercomputer scheduled for completion in 2005 is designed to use 1 million microprocessors, and will process over 1 quadrillion operations per second Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  20. What makes a computer a server? • A server serves the computers on a network by supplying them with data or resources (Internet, network files, printing, e-mail, etc.) • A client receives data or uses resources from a server • Any computer can be a server or a client • High performance servers are needed when there is a need for lots of users and rapid response Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  21. What’s a personal computer system? • A personal computer system consists of the following: • System unit: case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices • Display device: Monitor or LCD screen • Keyboard: Primary input device • Mouse: Secondary input device • Floppy disk drive: Storage for small amounts of data • Hard disk drive: Storage for large amounts of data • CD and DVD drives: Storage or audio • Sound card and speakers: Plays audio • Modem: Connects to the Internet • Peripheral devices: Printers, scanners, etc. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  22. What is a personal computer system? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  23. Personal Computer Systems Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  24. What is a peripheral device? • A peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality • Printer • Digital camera • Scanner • Joystick • Graphics tablet Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  25. Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions • The three old categories of computers were • __________________ • __________________ • __________________ • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of __________ computers. • Microsoft’s Xbox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True or false? • A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) __________. • The ___________ is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

  26. Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers • The three old categories of computers were • Mainframe • Minicomputer • Microcomputer • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of personal computers. • Microsoft’s XBox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True • A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) client . • The system unit is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics