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The Kannada language. Brief account of it’s origin .development ,status and it’s usage . PÀ£ÀßqÀ. St.Joseph’s college (Autonomous) Lalbagh road ,Bangalore. PÀ£ÀßqÀ E£ÉÆá«ÄÃrAiÀÄ. Kannada Infomedia. Kannada Infomedia is students initiative to

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The Kannada language

Brief account of it’s origin .development ,status and it’s usage .

PÀ£ÀßqÀ

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St.Joseph’s college (Autonomous)

Lalbagh road ,Bangalore

PÀ£ÀßqÀ E£ÉÆá«ÄÃrAiÀÄ

Kannada Infomedia

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Kannada Infomedia is students initiative to

teach Kannada to Non-Kannadigas (specially those

studying in our college in large numbers )

Please log on to our website for more information

www.kannadainfomedia.com

the kannada language
THE KANNADA LANGUAGE

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa) is one of the major Dravidian languages of India

Native speakers are called Kannadigas (ಕನ್ನಡಿಗರು Kannadigaru), number roughly 38 million, making it the 27th most spoken language in the world.

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It is one of the official languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.

  • Ministry of Culture, the Government of India has officially recognized Kannada as a classical language.
brief history
BRIEF HISTORY

Kannada is attested epigraphically from the mid-1st millennium CE, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th century Rashtrakuta Dynasty.

Contemporary Kannada literature is the most successful in India, with India's highest literary honor, the Jnanpith awards, having been conferred seven times upon Kannada writers, which is the highest for any language in India

in depth history
IN DEPTH HISTORY

The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to that of other Dravidian languages and independent of Sanskrit.

During later centuries, Kannada, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, etc., has been greatly influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles

old kannada
OLD KANNADA

Pre-old Kannada (Purava HaleGannada or) was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada.

Mostly Jain and Saivite poets produced works in this period.

written kannada
WRITTEN KANNADA

Written tradition of Kannada begins in the 5th to 6th century CE. The earliest examples, resembling those of Tamil, in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription, dated 450 CE

The 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurga and the Chikkamagaluru inscription of 500 CE are further examples.

Over 30,000 inscriptions written in the Kannada language have been discovered so far.

From the ninth to fourteenth centuries CE, Kannada works were classified under Old Kannada (Halegannada).

middle kannada
MIDDLE KANNADA

In the period between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries CE, Brahmanical Hinduism had a great influence on Middle Kannada (Nadugannada) language and literature. Non-Brahmin Hindu saints produced devotional poems in this period.

This period saw the advent of Haridasa Sahityawhich made rich contributions to bhakti literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music.

modern kannada
MODERN KANNADA

The Kannada works produced by the end of the nineteenth century and later are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada.

Most notable among them are the poet Muddana's works. His works may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada".

writing system
WRITING SYSTEM

The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: Swaragalu (vowels - thirteen letters); Yogavaahagalu ( Not vowel, Not Consonant, two letters, ಅಂ and ಅಃ); and Vyanjanagalu (Consonants - thirty-four letters), similar to the vowels and consonants of English, respectively.

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The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (vattaksharas)
history of the script
HISTORY OF THE SCRIPT

Kannada (Kanarese or Canarese) script is derived from the Old Kannda script. Old Kannada script is the continuation of the Kadamba script involved during 10th century CE, used to write the Kannada and Telugu languages, called as Kannada-Telugu script. Modern scripts of Kannada and Telugu started to separate as early as the 13th century CE (During 1100 CE - 1400 CE).

The Kadamba script is evolved from the Brahmi script (during 5th century CE).

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Each sound has its own distinct letter, and therefore every word is pronounced exactly as it is spelt; so the ear is a sufficient guide. After the exact sounds of the letters have been once gained, every word can be pronounced with perfect accuracy. The accent falls on the first syllable
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Grammar

The first authoritative known book on Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraaja.

The first available Kannada book is a treatise on poetry Kaviraja Maarga.

variations of dialects
Variations of dialects

The variations of dialects are several. Janapadas of Soliga, Badaga and other tribes of Karnataka having rich contribution to Kannada literature have their own style.

Various districts of Kannada have mixed variations of dialects like Dharwad Kannada, Sankethi, Havigannada, Are Bhashe, Mysooru Kannada, Kundagannada etc.

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The other native languages of Karnataka, Tulu, KodavaTakk, Bearybashe and Konkani are also written using the Kannada script.
geographic distribution
Geographic distribution

Kannada is mainly spoken in Karnataka in India, and to a good extent in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa, as well as in sizeable communities in the USA, Europe, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Middle Eastern countries, Canada, Malaysia, Australia, the UK, and Singapore.

kannada transliteration softwares
Kannada transliteration softwares

The official and administrative software is Nudi .

The user friendly and commonly used software is

Baraha

The other softwares includeShri lipi etc

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