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46-320-01 Tests and Measurements Intersession 2006 Cognitive Behavioral Assessment Based on principles of behavior modification (learning and cognition) Cause vs. symptom Symptom: precede, coexist, maintain Environmental factors or thought processes Observable phenomenon

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46 320 01 tests and measurements l.jpg

46-320-01Tests and Measurements

Intersession 2006


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Cognitive Behavioral Assessment

  • Based on principles of behavior modification (learning and cognition)

  • Cause vs. symptom

  • Symptom: precede, coexist, maintain

    • Environmental factors or thought processes

  • Observable phenomenon

  • Goal: changing symptom


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Operant Conditioning-Based

  • Behaviors are observed

  • Alter probability of recurrence of response

    • Positive reinforcement

    • Negative reinforcement

    • Punishment

  • Critical response

    • Frequency, intensity, duration – baseline

    • Implement

    • Evaluate intervention against baseline


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Self-Report Techniques

  • List of statements about situations (primary determinants of behavior)

  • Fear Survey Schedule (FSS)

    • 50 to 122 items

    • 5- or 7-point scale

    • Identify situations that elicit fear and avoidance

  • Assertiveness Behavior Survey Schedule (ABSS)

    • Situations and consequences


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Self-Report

  • Cautela and Upper

    • Self-report battery

    • Primary Scales

    • Secondary Scales

    • Tertiary Scales

  • Evaluating self-report

    • Face validity

    • Adequate psychometric analysis


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Kanfer and Saslow

  • Functional Approach

    • Behavioral excesses and deficits

    • Normal and disordered behaviors develop similarly

    • Clarify problem

    • Suggest treatment alternatives


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More Scales

  • Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS)

    • 2 forms; list of statements, 7-point Likert scale

    • Good validity

  • Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT)

    • Beliefs and expectations vs. reality

    • 100 items, agreement on 5-point scale

    • ½ items negatively worded


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Cognitive Functional Analysis

  • Meichenbaum: self-statements critical in behavior

    • Self-appraisals and expectancies

    • Environmental antecedents, environmental consequences, internal dialogue

  • Self-monitoring devices


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Psychophysiological Procedures

  • Quantify physiological responses

  • Heart rate, BP, GSR, skin temp

  • Fear, anger (Ax)

  • Polygraph

  • Sexual arousal

  • Evaluation:

    • Artifacts

    • Direct measurement/Prestimulus strength

    • Demographics


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Psychophysiological Procedures

  • EEG Biofeedback

    • Alter brain waves

    • Alpha waves

    • Video-game format


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Clinical Neuropsychology

  • What is it?

  • Brain dysfunction, affects of mental/physical illness

  • Memory:

    • Weschler Memory Scale-III

      • Auditory Immediate, Visual Immediate, Immediate Memory, Auditory Delayed, Visual Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, General Memory, and Working Memory


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Clinical Neuropsychology

  • Localized problems vs. interconnections

  • Left vs. Right hemisphere problems

  • Specific problems

    • E.g., Wernicke’s Aphasia

  • Spatial problems

    • E.g., dressing apraxia

  • Information-processing deficits

    • Recall vs. recognition


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Developmental Neuropsychology

  • Brain injury, lesions, trauma

  • Development and birth complications

  • Executive functions

    • Volition, self-control and self-monitoring

    • Mirsky: Focus Execute, Sustain, Encode, Shift

  • Learning disabilities

    • Dyslexia



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Developmental Neuropsychology

  • Development of Rehabilitation Plans

    • 1. Testing to determine problem

    • 2. Assessment of environment

    • 3. Treatment plan

    • 4. Ideal treatment plan

    • 5. Availability of resources

    • 6. Realistic remedial plan

    • 7. Progress evaluation


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Halstead-Reitan Battery

  • Many tests

    • Halstead category test, Tactual test, Rhythm test, Speech-sounds perception test, Finger oscillation test

    • Related procedures: Trail making test, Strength-of-grip test, Sensory-perceptual examination

  • Performance associated with dysfunction in one hemisphere


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Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery

  • Pluripotentiality

  • Golden

    • 269 items, 24 hours

    • 11 subsections

      • Motor functions, rhythm, tactile, visual, receptive speech, expressive speech, writing, reading, arithmetic skills, memory, intellectual processes

    • Scores: subsections, Pathognomic score, left or right hemisphere dysfunction


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California Verbal Learning Test

  • How errors are made in learning tasks

  • Verbal learning and memory

    • E.g., recall and recognition

  • Good validity

  • CVLT-C

    • Ages 5 to 16

    • Learning disabilities, ADHD, MR, neurological disorders

    • Recall and recognition of words

    • High reliability and validity


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Anxiety

  • Stress:

    • Frustration, conflict, pressure

    • Exposure causes anxiety

  • STAI

    • 20 items per, 4-point scale

    • A-State, A-Trait

    • Reliability: test-retest

    • Validity: 2 factor structure, good concurrent validity


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Test Anxiety

  • Mandler & Sarason: 2 types of responding

    • Task-relevant or task-irrelevant responses

  • Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ)

    • Learned task drive

    • Learned anxiety drive

    • 37 items, 15 cm line (ends and midpoint defined)

    • High reliability


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Test Anxiety

  • Test Anxiety Scale (TAS)

    • Sarason – criticized TAQ for state not trait

    • TAQ items in T/F format (21 items)

    • Person focus (not situation)

    • Valid as measure of personality

  • Emotionality and Worry (Liebert & Morris)

    • Independent dimensions

  • Achievement and Anxiety Test (AAT)

    • Debilitating and facilitating anxiety


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Coping and Social Support

  • Ways Of Coping Scale

    • 68 item checklist

    • Thoughts and actions used in stressful situation

    • Problem focused and emotion focused

  • Social Support Questionnaire

    • 27 items, people and satisfaction with support

    • Very stable and valid


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Quality of Life Assessment

  • Health

  • Psychometric vs. decision theory

  • SF-36

    • 8 health concepts

      • Physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, mental health

    • Good reliability and validity

    • Not age-specific


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