Psychological and EducationalTests and Measurements A Finding Guide for OSU Library Faculty Dan Chaney Humanities and Social Sciences Division
Why Tests & Measurements? Upper level students (largely psychology and counseling psychology) are occasionally asked to locate tests and measurements. Graduate students beginning to think about a dissertation might begin to explore tests already available before designing their own measures. Sometimes for an assignment. Sometimes a professor they work with needs the test/measurement. Tests and measurements are survey tools designed to measure or gauge some quality, habit, trend or need.
Where Are Tests and Measurements Likely to Appear? • Journal Literature • Books • Conference Proceedings • Online Sources (Web Pages) (This is not an comprehensive list)
Things to Remember About Tests and Measurements • Tests and measurements are creative acts, written by people (usually researchers and other experts.) • As such, they are sometimes published (sometimes not.) • It’s been my experience that rarely will you find a test or measurement available on the Internet for FREE (although it does happen occasionally.) • Generally, tests and measurements will be available only from a publisher for a price. • The Library doesn’t own measurements and tests, per se, although we do have many places we can look for them.
Basic Questions to Keep in Mind • Does the researcher have a specific test in mind? • Does the researcher want a copy of the actual test or measurement? • Does the researcher only want a review of the test or measurement?
The Major Sources:Mental Measurements Yearbookand Tests in Print Before we talk about anything else, we need to know the two major sources!
Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) • Currently in its 14th edition (2001), the MMY is the standard source for critical reviews of commercially available tests and measurements. It’s published about every 5 years. • Originated in 1938 by Oscar Buros, the MMY is often referred to simply as “Buros”. Buros was also responsible for Tests in Print. • To be included in MMY, tests must be • Commercially available • New or revised since the last edition of MMY and/or are widely popular or have generated more than twenty citations in the literature • Published in the English language • Beginning with the 14th edition, tests must include some documentation about its development and/or technical properties.
More MMY Background • Entries for each test include short descriptive information, critiques, and bibliographies (Note: test references were discontinued as of the 14th edition.) Critiques are written by experts in the field. There are extensive bibliographies after each entry that cover validity, construction and use of the tests in different settings with different populations. • Indexed by test title (with cross references), classified subject, publisher name, name index for authors, reviewers and references, acronym, and test score for references to tests featuring particular scores (such as depression, stress, and self-control) • There is an online, comprehensive index to the MMY at: http://www.unl.edu/buros/00testscomplete.html for the 9th through the most recent edition • Call Number: 016.151 B967m - Second Floor, General Reference
MMY Information Fields • The MMY might include the following information for entries: • Title: Titles are presented in boldface • Purpose: there is a brief statement describing the purpose, often taken from the measurement instruction manual. • Population: describes the group for which the test is designed • Publication Date: includes the dates for various components or updates • Acronym: just in case the test is referred to by initialism • Scores: lists the number of part scores, with titles or descriptions • Administration: indicates either individual or group • Forms, Parts and Levels • Manual: notation is made if no manual is available. • Restricted Distribution: noted only for tests that are put on a special market. Educational and psychological restrictions are not noted. • Price Data: what does the measurement cost? (e.g., $17.50 for 35 tests)
MMY Information Fields, cont. • Foreign Language and Other Special Editions: mainly for foreign language versions • Time: number of minutes of actual working time allowed to administer and take the test • Comments: for special notations, such as “for research use only” or “tests administered monthly throughout the U.S.” • Author • Publisher • Foreign Adaptations: largely for test use in foreign countries • Sub-listings: levels, editions, subtests, etc. • Cross References: mostly cross references to previously reviewed versions of tests from previous editions of the MMY
Tests In Print (TIP) • Consists of descriptive listings of and references to commercially published tests that are in print and available for purchase. It serves as a comprehensive index to the MMY. • First published in 1961 by our old friend Oscar Buros because it was obvious that an comprehensive bibliography of tests was needed, which would also serve as an index to the MMY. • TIP is planned for update about every 5 years. • In general, if the test isn’t listed in TIP V, it’s probably out of print and you should consult the Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures (152.8 G619d, General Reference)
TIP Overview • A comprehensive bibliography of commercially available tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects • Bibliographies, for specific tests, of references related to the construction, validity, or use of the tests In various settings • Test title indexing that includes all tests currently in print, as well as tests that have gone out of print since TIP IV, and alternate or superceded titles for some tests • Separate listings for tests that have gone out of print since TIP IV • Classified subject indexing that also describes the population for which the test was intended • Publishers listing and directory, including contact information • Name index, including the names of authors, reviewers and references. • Score index, listing all scores generated by the tests listed in TIP • Listing of contributing reviewers for the entire MMY series
Content Comparison: MMY vs. TIP • TIP V = 2,939 test entries • MMY 14th edition = 430 test descriptions/reviews (802 test reviews by 461 different authors) • MMY 14th edition features 296 tests which had never appeared previously in MMY.
Differences Between MMY and TIP • MMY consists of descriptive entries, references and critical reviews of commercially published tests, published in English. Each MMY includes reviews of tests that are new or substantially revised since the previous edition. Remember that the MMY is hierarchical, and that the more recent index listings are for revised versions of tests. So, if you’re searching MMY, start with the latest edition and work backwards. • TIP is a comprehensive volume describing every test that is currently available for purchase. TIP V supercedes TIP IV. • Not all tests and measures are reviewed in MMY and there are somewhat firm requirements that tests must meet to be featured. • Because not all tests are reviewed in MMY, TIP is necessary to identify and locate tests which are available and in print, but not widely popular or used enough to be featured in MMY.
The Second String Players:Test CritiquesandTests: A Comprehensive Reference for Assessments in Psychology, Education, and Business
Tests: A Comprehensive Reference for Assessments in Psychology, Education, and Business • This reference is designed for quick identification of a test to meet a specific need. Unlike other test guides, it does not provide evaluations. Over 3,000 published English-language assessment instruments are listed under three broad subject categories (psychology, education, and business), with 87 subsections. Each entry provides a purpose, description, intended population, administration and scoring, cost and availability. Indexed by publisher, title, author, out-of-print instruments, availability of computer scoring, and tests composed for special population groups (e.g, visually impaired, non-English speakers, etc.) Call Number: 150.28 T345 1991 - Third Floor Stacks. (Don’t ask me why this is allowed to circulate.) • Note: Reviews of tests in this resource are available in the ten-volume Test Critiques.
Test Critiques • A standard outline for critiques includes an introduction, practical applications and uses, technical aspects, and a critique of each test. Test Critiques contains scholarly reviews and includes information related to the reliability, validity and normative development of the measurements. Focuses primarily on psychology, education and business tests. It should be used in conjunction with a sister publication Tests. There is a cumulative title index as well as indexing for publishers, subject and author/reviewer. Call Number: 150.287 T342, v.1-10 - Second Floor, Reference Collection.
Lesson One: Don’t Assume the Researcher Has Their Information Correct • You’d be amazed at the frequency with which someone wants a test and doesn’t have the title correct. Why? Because their professor sent them to the Library to look for their “shorthand version” of the test title. There’s nothing more frustrating than spending an hour looking for a test when you don’t have the right title. • Example: the “Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale” is actually titled the “Rosenberg Scale of Self-Esteem” • Is the title they offer spelled correctly? • One could search PsycINFO for hours looking for the phrase Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale, when the actual name is Rosenberg. (Trust me, this happened to me recently!) • So, you may need to spend some time determining the actual title of the test or measurement.
Lesson Two: Is the Test Still in Print? Always wise to see if the measurement is currently in print, so you can target where to look next. • Consult the TIP V index to determine if the test is currently in print. If so, TIP will put you into MMY for a few titles. (Remember, MMY only does reviews.) • Search the ERIC/AE Test Locator (online) athttp://ericae.net/testcol.htm(Generally, I’ve only found this useful to help people identify a measurement in cases where they don’t have a specific one in mind.) • The Test Locator will also lead you to the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) or Tests in Print (TIP). • Note: The ERIC/AE site includes records from the ETS Test Collection Catalog • Why does it matter if the test is still in print? Because if it’s not in print, it might be hard to locate a copy. Or, it might be easier if it’s no longer being sold. It kinda depends.
Lesson Three: To Find Reviews • Consult the Mental Measurements Yearbook(General Reference, 016.151 B967m) for reviews or publisher contact information (selective listing) • Note: For a cumulative index to the MMY, consult Tests in Print V(for all editions) or connect online to http://www.unl.edu/buros/00testscomplete.html for the 9th through current edition (14th). • Consult Tests and/or Test Critiques more reviews.
Other Print Sources Of Note • Goldman, Bert Arthur and John L. Saunders. Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1990. (152.8 G619d, v.1-7 - Second Floor, Reference Collection) • These volumes cite unpublished, experimental tests appearing in journals in psychology, sociology, education and interdisciplinary social science journals. Coverage is limited to US journals. Entries provide a brief description, and a reference to the journal in which it appeared. Later volumes have a cumulative index. Instruments are categorized by general type and supplemented by author and subject indexes.
Other Strategies If you are not able to find it in any of the books listed above, you may want to search a database. Occasionally you may find an article that used the measure or tells you who published the test, etc. On rare occasions, you may find a copy of the measurement appended to the research article itself, if the author of the article developed the measurement. Finally, you may want to run a search of the Internet with the measurement title as your keywords. More and more often we can find publishers of tests and measurements online. Note: tests and measurements are not frequently offered for free on the Internet, however, we can use the Internet for contact information.
If the researcher doesn’t have a specific test in mind, if they want to see what’s available, or if they want to design their own, you can use the OPAC to identify titles that may be of interest. Some Library of Congress Subject Headings include (but are not limited to): ability--testing achievement test-- college entrance achievement tests-- educational tests and measurements-- examinations examinations--design and construction-- examinations--interpretation-- examinations--questions examinations--scoring examinations--validity intelligence tests-- learning ability--testing multiple choice tests-- neuropsychological tests-- psychological tests-- psychometrics-- sociometry-- scale analysis (psychology)-- test anxiety-- test bias-- OSU Library Catalog Tips
Database Suggestions • PsycINFO: try entering the title of the measurement as an "Identifier", or for research about measures and/or assessments, try a descriptor keyword "measures" or "assessment" combined with type of measure, e.g. "assessment neuropsychological" Also try the keyword "appended" to shake loose tests that are included with the article. • Digital Dissertations (for locating new measurements or for finding information on the application of measurements) • ISI Web of Knowledge (useful to find articles which cite a published test or measurement) • ERIC (for finding reviews and articles that use tests and measurements) • Medline (helpful in finding a description of a test and for locating measurements that are underreported in social gerontology but are used with the elderly and those living in nursing homes.)
Test References Ranking (TIP) The top 10 tests ranked by reference frequencies in TIP: • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Third Edition • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Third Edition • State-Trait Anxiety Inventory • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 • Symptom Checklist – 90 – Revised • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – III • Wechsler Memory Scale III • Beck Depression Inventory – II • Raven Progressive Matrices • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Revised and Expanded
A Primer on Finding Tests (APA) FAQ/Finding Information About Psychological Tests http://www.apa.org/science/faq-findtests.html