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245 $a Introduction to MARC and DACS for archivists : $b a workshop in cataloging for SIRIS members / $c Michelle McDaniel, Diane Shaw, and Karen Weiss, instructors, $f 2008 Mar. 26. Introduction to MARC and DACS for Archivists SCHEDULE.

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Introduction to MARC and DACS for Archivists SCHEDULE


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    1. 245 $a Introduction to MARC and DACS for archivists : $b a workshop in cataloging for SIRIS members / $c Michelle McDaniel, Diane Shaw, and Karen Weiss, instructors, $f 2008 Mar. 26.

    2. Introduction to MARC and DACS for Archivists SCHEDULE • 9:00-9:30 Welcome Introduction: Cataloging Basics 9:45-10:00 Overview of Cataloging Content Standards • 10:00-10:45 Part I Description DACS Requirements Description for different formats/different levels • 10:45-11:00 Break • 11:15-12:00 Description, cont’d Exercise • 12:00-1:00 Lunch • 1:00-2:15 Part II: Access points / Index terms • Authority Records in DACS and MARC Subjects- Topical, Form, Geographic, Other2:15-2:45 Index Terms: Exercises • 2:45-3:00 Break • 3:00-3:30 Fixed Field data, Action Fields, Linking Tags, Other Fields • 3:30-4:00 Q&A and Discussion

    3. Cataloging Basics Why add catalog records for your archival materials to SIRIS? • Helps researchers find basic information about your holdings • Compared with creating a finding aid, a catalog record is a quicker (though less detailed) way to document what you have • Availability of collection management features for staff use

    4. So what do you need to know to contribute records to SIRIS? • MARC - Machine Readable Cataloging (a data structure standard) and basic ISBD / International Standard Bibliographical Description punctuation • DACS - Describing Archives: A Content Standard, or other data content standard(s)

    5. MARC • MARC (the current version is generally referred to as MARC 21) is a method of coding data that enables computer systems to properly display, index, search, and retrieve information from catalog records • MARC 21 has various formats, e.g: Bibliographic; Authority; Holdings; Classification (you’ll only be concerned with the first two; and this workshop will focus primarily on the MARC Bibliographic format)

    6. Where did MARC come from? • MARC grew out of a Library of Congress-based initiative from the beginnings of computerized cataloging, ca. 1960s, and is still maintained by the Library of Congress, in cooperation with Library and Archives Canada • Website for MARC: http://www.loc.gov/marc/

    7. Elements of a MARC Record A MARC record consists of these main sections: • The leader (partially computer-generated; includes information on encoding level, type of record, whether record is collection or item-level, archival control, etc. Includes “fixed field” elements) • The directory (entirely computer-generated, a sort of index to the fields in the record) • Variable control fields (001-006; generally not used in archival cataloging) • Variable data fields (01X-8XX), where most of the data content is contained

    8. Common MARC Terms • Field (Type of data) Examples: Title; Date; Creator; Subject • Tag (field identifier, generally 3 digits long) Examples of tags: 245 (title statement); 300 (physical description); 650 (topical subject added entry) • Every tag has a specific meaning and is limited in how it can be used • Tags are grouped numerically according to purpose, e.g. 1XX fields are versions of main entry; 5XX fields are notes; 6XX fields are various kinds of subject headings

    9. More common MARC terms • Indicator: Two character spaces immediately following each tag that instruct the computer on the number of characters to skip for initial articles in titles, or specify a particular label to accompany a field in the OPAC, etc. (often left blank) • Examples: 245 14 The cat in the hat. 520 __ Summary: .... 520 2_ Scope and content: ...

    10. More common MARC terms • Subfield: A component part of a field Examples of subfield names: Extent; Dimensions; Inclusive dates • Subfield code: Alphabetical or numerical code that identifies a subfield for the computer system; preceded by a “delimiter” symbol (given here as $) Example: 300 __ $a 3 boxes Example: 245 10 $a Diary, $f 1820-1823. Example: 655 _7 $a Aerial photographs. $2 aat

    11. But we’re archivists! Why use MARC, instead of, say, EAD? • While EAD is also a data structure standard, it’s not what most Integrated Library System (ILS) vendors such as SIRSI-Dynix use for programming their catalogs. For the time being, MARC is considered the international standard for encoding bibliographic records. • MARC is the standard to use if you want to contribute records to a union catalog (e.g. OCLC’s Worldcat) or to participate in collaborative projects within SI (the cross-searching portal) or with other repositories • MARC records have fields that can link to finding aids, inventories, can serve as a companion or abstract to other descriptive tools.

    12. OCLC / Worldcat • OCLC’s Cataloging Service is called Connexion • Connexion is used for editing and creating MARC bibliographic and authority records • Bibliographic records in Connexion are made available on the Internet through the Firstsearch / Worldcat online union catalog (accessible through SIL’s “Tools for the Researcher” web page)

    13. EAD and MARC • MARC will be moving to an XML framework eventually; and in the meantime it’s possible to use cross-walks to convert MARC to EAD or Dublin Core, etc • EAD Tag Library and Data Definitions include MARC encoding analogs to support cross-walks.

    14. EAD TAGS and MARC ENCODING ANALOGS • <repository label="Repository:" encodinganalog="852$a"> • <corpname>Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution</corpname> • </repository> • <origination label="Creator:"> • <persname encodinganalog="100">Romare Bearden</persname> • </origination> • <unittitle label="Title:" encodinganalog="245$a">Romare Bearden papers</unittitle> • <unitdate label="Dates:">1937-1982</unitdate> • <physdesc label="Quantity:" encodinganalog="300$a">2 linear feet</physdesc>

    15. DACS and its Antecedents • DACS was published by the Society of American Archivists in 2004 • DACS is a revision of Steve Hensen’s / SAA’s manual, Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (1989), which was created to adapt Chapter 4 of the 2nd ed. of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) to the needs of the archival community. AACR2, as the grand-daddy of cataloging rules, is worth reviewing here briefly

    16. Anglo American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed. Revised (AACR2r) • Covers the description of, and provision of access points for, all formats of library materials. Includes rules for establishing name (but not subject) headings. • Published jointly by American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (U.K.). The 1st ed. (AACR) appeared in 1967; the 2nd ed. in 1978; the 2nd rev. ed. in 1988. It is slated for replacement by Resource Description and Access (RDA) in 2009.

    17. Chapter 1 – General rules Chapter 2 – Books, Pamphlets Chapter 3 – Cartographic Chapter 4 – Manuscripts Chapter 5 - Music Chapter 6 – Sound recordings Chapter 7 – Motion pictures / video Chapter 8 – Graphic materials Chapter 9 – Electronic resources Chapter 10 – Three Dimensional and realia Chapter 11 – Continuing Resources Structure of AACR2Part I – Description

    18. Part II - chapters 21-26 Chapter 21 -Choice of Access Points Chapter 22 - Headings for Persons Chapter 23 -Geographic Names Chapter 24-Headings for Corporate Bodies DACS summarizes these 4 chapters in Part III Structure of AACR2 Part II – Headings, Uniform Titles, and References

    19. Future of AACR2: RDA • RDA (Resource Description and Access) is the working title for “AACR3” • RDA is being developed as a new standard designed for the digital world, covering all types of content and media (both digital and analog) with greater flexibility than AACR2 • RDA will be able to align with a variety of metadata standards and emerging database technologies, not limited to MARC • Existing catalog records in MARC will be compatible with RDA; the form of some headings may be changed (e.g. for the Bible; also will allow a family name to be a “creator”) • RDA’s website: http://www.rdaonline.org/

    20. Released Jan. 9, 2008 Working Group’s charge: Present findings on how bibliographic control and other descriptive practices can effectively support management of and access to library materials in the evolving information and technology environment Recommend ways in which the library community can collectively move toward achieving this vision Advise the Library of Congress on its role and priorities Future Developments in Cataloging

    21. Related Developments • Social tagging added to catalog data • Open Source ILS development; integrating more non-MARC content with MARC • EAC – Encoded Archival Context – new data format to replace authority record promoted by international archival community

    22. The Role of Companion Content Standards

    23. MARC 21Doesn’t Exist in a Vacuum • Behind every great MARC tag is a great content standard. • To use MARC tags, need to understand the various rules for different formats, and repository’s own policies, practices, priorities. • To use DACS, need to understand other content standards (DACS Appendix B)

    24. The nice thing about Standards is that there are so many of them to choose from AACR2 All formats ISAD(G) Archives DACS Archives Betz (Graphic materials) OHCM (Oral History) IASA (Sound) AMIM (Moving Image) DCRM (Rare Books) CCO (Art works, artifacts) AMREMM – Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance… Content Standards for Archivistssee also http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/reladesc.html

    25. Supplement to Chapter 8 of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Photographic prints, negatives, albums posters, cartoons, popular and fine prints, and architectural drawings.  1982 (print) Updates 1997 and 2002 Available online in PDF and Word http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/gm/graphmat.html Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections

    26. Graphic Materials “Betz”http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/grph0412.htm

    27. IASA Cataloging Rules: A Manual for the Description of Sound Recordings and Related Audiovisual Media 1999 http://www.iasa-web.org/icat/icat001.htm

    28. 1995 Designed as companion to APPM; conforms to AACR2 Treats Oral History as a distinct intellectual form, defined as: “The process of deliberately eliciting and preserving, usually in audio or audio and visual recording media, a person’s spoken recollections of events and experiences based on first- hand knowledge” Oral History Cataloging Manual (ohcm)

    29. Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual, 2nd Edition (2000) • Prepared by a committee of LC Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Staff • Cataloging Rules (within the general framework of AACR2, Chapter 7) for all types of moving image materials including features, shorts, television programs, documentaries, newscasts, newsreels, educational works, home movies, compilations, commercials, trailers, excerpts, unedited footage, outtakes, and more. The rules cover all formats from 3-D to DVD. • New rules for collection-level cataloging • Examples using MARC 21 content designation

    30. Archival Moving Image Materials (AMIM)http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/arch0332.htm

    31. 2004, 2007 Replaces APPM Principles Developed out of CUSTARD – Canadian U.S. Task Force on Archival Description and based on ISAD(G) Statement of Principles Levels of description in statement DACSDescribing Archives : A Content Standard

    32. IDENTITY STATEMENT AREA Reference code(s) Title Date(s Level of description Extent and medium of the unit of description (quantity, bulk, or size) CONTEXT AREA Administrative / Biographical history Archival history Immediate source of acquisition or transfer CONTENT AND STRUCTURE AREA Scope and content Appraisal, destruction and scheduling information Accruals System of arrangement CONDITIONS OF ACCESS AND USE AREA Conditions governing reproduction Language/scripts of material Physical characteristics and technical requirements Finding aids ALLIED MATERIALS AREA Existence and location of originals Existence and location of copies Related units of description Publication note NOTES AREA Note DESCRIPTION CONTROL AREA Archivist's Note Rules or Conventions Date(s) of descriptions ISAD(G) – International Standard for Archival Descriptionhttp://www.ica.org/sites/default/files/isad_g_2e.pdf

    33. IDENTITY ELEMENTS (chapter 2) Reference code Name and Location of Repository Title Date Extent Name of Creators Administrative / Biographical history CONTENT AND STRUCTURE ELEMENTS (chapter 3) Scope and content System of arrangement CONDITIONS OF ACCESS AND USE ELEMENTS (chapter 4) Conditions governing access Physical access Technical Access Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use Languages and Scripts of the Material Finding Aids ACQUISITION AND APPRAISAL ELEMENTS (chapter 5)Conditions governing Custodial history Immediate Source of Acquisition Appraisal, Destruction, and Scheduling Information Accruals RELATED MATERIAS ELEMENTS (ch 6) Existence and location of originals Existence and location of copies Related archival materials Publication note NOTES ELEMENT (chapter 7) Note not defined by other elements DESCRIPTION CONTROL ELEMENT Sources used, rules or conventions, name of the person who prepared or revised, date created or revised DACSDescribing Archives: A Content Standard

    34. Requirements per DACS “SINGLE LEVEL” MINIMUM * • Reference code(s) • Name and Location of Repository • Title • Date • Extent • Name of Creator(s) • Scope and Content (may be short) • Conditions Governing Access • Language and Scripts * ex.: Preliminary accession record, database at a single level; METS record for a description of archival materials

    35. Requirements Per DACS SINGLE LEVEL OPTIMUM – all minimum plus: • Administrative/Biographical History • Scope and Content (expanded) • Access points SINGLE LEVEL ADDED VALUE– all optimum plus: • Any other elements the repository wants to include

    36. DACS Single Level Minimum Requirements and MARC Equivalents

    37. DACS, MARC and Multilevel Description DACS: Examples of Multilevel descriptions include: • Preliminary or full inventory or finding aid • a database record in a CMS that describes materials at more than one level • multiple linked MARC records Requirements at the Multi-Level are almost identical save for the Identification of Whole-Part Relationship • MARC 7XX Linking and Leader Bibliographic Level • MARC 007, c- collection; d-subunit (series/folder); m-item • In MARC 351 $c

    38. Part I: Description • Minimum Requirements (per DACS) • Title (MARC 245) • Date (MARC 245 |f) 260 |c for some formats • Extent (MARC 300) • Name of Creator(s) (MARC 1XX, 7XX)Identifying Creators • Scope and Content (MARC 520) • Conditions Governing Access (MARC 506) • Reference code (MARC 040) • Location of repository (MARC 852)

    39. TitleMARC 245 • Catalogers of archival materials will mostly supply a title • A formal title most often on published materials, items, or files – refer to AACR2 or specialized rules • Sources for information for supplied titles, use materials being described or any reliable source

    40. Title MARC 245 continued • Per DACS, supplied title composed of Name segment + nature of the archival unit • Per Betz, supplied title should be descriptive, enclosed in brackets; optional to add general material designation (GMD) • Formal titles: refer to AACR2r or specialized manual

    41. Title 245 Examples 245 $a Florence Allen papers 245 $a Leo Castelli Gallery records 245 $a Winslow Homer collection 245 $a Horace Pippin notebooks and letters 245 $a Willard Metcalf sketchbooks 245 $a Si Lewen photograph albums 245 $a Margery Hoffman Smith papers regarding Timberline Lodge, Oregon 245 $a [Diego Rivera and Robert H. Tannahill] $h [graphic] 245 $a Abraham and Esther Rattner letter to Helen Kroll Kramer

    42. DateMarc 245 $f or 260 $c • Most archivists will record a range of dates or a single date of creation, such as date of writing a letter, photograph taken, sound recorded, video or aggregate of creation for all documents described • Use Fixed Field 008 Type of date and date

    43. DateMarc 245 $f or 260 $c • DACS outlines variety of situations: • Inclusive dates – earliest to latest • Bulk or predominant dates • Ongoing / accruals expected • Format for recording significant gaps • Estimated date ranges and estimated single dates • Exact dates • No dates • Examples show 260 $c for published and specialized formats (photographs)

    44. Date 245Examples • $aJack Greenbaum scrapbook and interviews,$f1961-1978. • $aAbraham and Esther Rattner letter to Helen Kroll Kramer,$fundated. • aKraushaar Galleries records,$f1877-1978,$gbulk 1926-1968. • $aJack Greenbaum scrapbook and interviews,$f1961-1978. • Lessing J. Rosenwald interview, 1970 Aug. 18. • Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers, $fcirca 1905-1984.

    45. ExtentMarc 300 • Indicates the extent and physical nature of materials being described. • Formatted as a number and extent (linear or cubic feet, items, or containers); or material type. • Take material types, general or specific, from AAT, LC Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, LCSH. • Don’t repeat material type if provided in title • Can record multiple statements or highlights • Allows estimates, (“approximately,” “circa,” “about”)

    46. Extent Examples DACS:300 $a45 $f linear feet • 300 $a10 $f items • 300 $a 3 boxes • 300 $a 3 sound recordings • 300 $a 45 linear feet, including 200 photographs and 16 maps • 300 $a 71 $f maps (3.5 cubic feet)Note: use of $f to code extent is optional

    47. ExtentExamples • $3Sound recording, master:$a7 sound cassettes (ca. 11 hrs.); $banalog. 300 $3Sound recording, duplicate:$a7 cassettes 300 $3Transcript: $a373 p.

    48. ExtentExamples Specific formats: 300 $a1 drawing :$bpencil, pen and ink on paper ;$c19 x 11.5 cm., on sheet 28 x 20.1 cm. • $3Sound recording:$a2 sound cassettes 300 $3Transcript: $a149 p. 300 $a3 $fphotographic prints :$bb&w ;$c10 x 8 in.

    49. Name of Creator(s) DACS – Statement of Principle No. 8: “The creators of archival materials, as well as the materials themselves, must be described.” • DACS Element 2.6 Name of Creator(s) requires following rules in Part II, Chapter 9, Identifying Creators. • Names of creators serve as access points

    50. Name of Creator(s)1xx, 7xx and title - name segment DACS Part II, Describing Creators identifies 3 steps: • Identify the individuals, families, and corporate bodies that played a significant role in the creation of the materials. • Assemble biographical information for persons; history, structure, functions for an organization. • Formulate names in a standardized form based on AACR2 – outlined in DACS chapters 12, 13, 14. Note: While Administrative history/biographical information is not required, it is likely that it will need to be included to fullfill step 2.