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What Would You See if you Were On a Nucleus?. Topics for Today. Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy Inside the Atom Mass Number and Isotopes More on Radon. Readings in Text. 1.7 Atoms & Molecules 2.2 Atomic Structure and Periodicity. Topics for Friday.

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topics for today
Topics for Today
  • Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy
  • Inside the Atom
  • Mass Number and Isotopes
  • More on Radon
readings in text
Readings in Text

1.7 Atoms & Molecules

2.2 Atomic Structure and Periodicity

topics for friday
Topics for Friday
  • Quiz #1 at the end of the period.
  • You can find the practice questions on the course website (News of the Week on the Monthly Calender).
topics for friday1
Topics for Friday
  • Radiation
  • History and discovery of radioactivity
  • Alpha, beta, and gamma decay
  • Quiz #1
readings
Readings
  • Chapter 2 on the electromagnetic spectrum (page 75)
  • Chapter 7.7 - What is radioactivity?

How are gamma rays different than visible light? How are they similar?

announcements
Announcements
  • Assignment #1 is due in your TA’s email Inbox Monday before lecture!
  • Please send to your TA and myself!
  • See the course website for the full details!
slide9
PRELAB QUIZ for Week #2

Due before your lab

next week

Unlimited number of tries allowed this week only.

topics for today1
Topics for Today
  • Elements and Atoms and Molecules, oh boy
  • Inside the Atom
  • Mass Number and Isotopes
  • More on Radon
element
ELEMENT:

Eleven elements make up over 99% of your body.

Which ones?

chapter 11 page 488
Chapter 11 (page 488)
  • Elements in the human body

Figure 11.3 and Table 11.2

Which compound

is most abundant in

your body?

review elements
Rn

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Review - Elements
  • One of the hundred or so symbols on the periodic table.
  • Which ones do you need to know?
slide16
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that we can identify as the element.

Can we SEE atoms?

slide18
Copper Surface

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

slide20
What is wrong with this picture?
  • How big are these atoms?
short answer
Short Answer

The diameter is around 1 to 5 x 10-10 meters

Or 0.0000000001 meters!

How small is this?

powers of 10 website
Powers of 10 Website
  • http://molecular.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/index.html
slide23
A pinhead is about 1 x 10-3 meters (1 mm) in diameter
  • Therefore, more than 1,000,000 atoms can fit across a pinhead!
slide24
~3 x 10-10 meters

in diameter

(~300 x 10-12 meter)

slide25
~3 x 10-10 meter
  • The nucleus is about 1/100,000 of the diameter.
back to the pinheads
Back to the Pinheads
  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?
back to the pinheads1
Back to the Pinheads
  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?

How big would the atom be?

back to the pinheads2
Back to the Pinheads
  • What if the nucleus had a diameter of a pinhead (1 mm)?

How big would the atom be?

10 meters!

slide29
If the nucleus were 10 cm in diameter, then…

the edge of the atom would be 1,000,000 cm or

10,000 meters or

6 miles away!

10 cm

slide30
If the nucleus were 10 cm in diameter, then…

the edge of the atom would be 1,000,000 cm or

10,000 meters or

6 miles away!

10 cm

SO, what would you see if you were on the nucleus?

slide35
Where is the mass located?

Charge Location Mass

slide36
Charge Location Mass

What gives an atom its volume?

back to radon
Back to Radon…

Atomic Number (protons), Z

how else can we write this
X

A

Z

How else can we write this?

X = Element Symbol from periodic table

A = Mass number (protons + neutrons)

Z = Number of Protons

how else can we write this1
X

A

Z

How else can we write this?

Try this for radon-222!

X = Element Symbol from periodic table

A = Mass number (protons + neutrons)

Z = Number of Protons

slide40
222

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Rn

radon-222

for the quiz
For the quiz…
  • Calculators are OK. Cannot use any calculators with memory!
quiz cont
Quiz Cont…
  • Please sit ONLY in the ‘dark’ colored seats!
slide44
222

86

Rn

radon-222

Is this needed?

slide45
222

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Rn

222Rn

radon-222

How about this?

slide46
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slide47
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These are the _______ of radon.

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slide48
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These are the isotopes of radon.

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slide49
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What do these isotopes have in common?

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How do they differ?

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slide50
All the atoms of an element have the same number of ___________,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of ___________.

remember this
Remember This!!

All the atoms of an element have the same number of protons,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons.

slide52
All the atoms of an element have the same number of protons,

… but the isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons.

How else are the isotopes similar?

hydrogen
Hydrogen

Atomic Number (protons)

Atomic Mass

slide57
The mass number (A) is NOT found on the periodic table
  • The periodic table shows us atomic mass!
slide59
1

1

H

1H

hydrogen-1

isotopes of hydrogen
Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

1

2

1

3

1

isotopes
Isotopes

1

1

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

2

1

3

1

How many neutrons does 3H have?

slide62
Which isotope is deuterium?

hydrogen

deuterium

p

p

n

n

n

p

tritium

slide63
Which isotope is deuterium?

hydrogen

deuterium

p

p

n

Deuterium

Hydrogen

n

n

p

tritium

Tritium

slide64
Since we are on hydrogen….

Does the little 2 after hydrogen have anything to do with isotopes?

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

slide65
H2 = hydrogen molecule

made up of 2 hydrogen atoms

slide66
Is H2 an atom or a compound?

H2 = hydrogen molecule

made up of 2 hydrogen atoms

isotopes of hydrogen1
Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

1

2

1

3

1

d 2 o vs h 2 o
D2O vs H2O

Does D2O freeze just like water?

slide71
Back to protons and neutrons …

Mass number

(A)

Atomic number

(Z)

2

1

H

slide75
Remember!

Mass # = Atomic # + # neutrons

slide76
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And back to isotopes …

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isotopes1
Isotopes

1) EVERY element on the periodic table has different isotopes.

isotopes of hydrogen2
Isotopes of hydrogen

1H or H “hydrogen”

2H or H or D deuterium

3H or H or T tritium

1

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2

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1

carbon
Carbon

12

6

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

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6

carbon1
Carbon

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6

What can people find out from isotopes?

when how did life start on earth
When / How did life start on Earth?

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6

when how did life start on earth1
When / How did life start on Earth?

12

6

98.89%

1.11%

Trace

12C or C

13C or C

14C or C

13

6

14

6

We’re talking over 4 billion years ago!

remember
Remember…

All the isotopes react in the same way.

carbon 12 vs carbon 13
Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13

Most living things depend on carbon for their livelihood…

Photosynthesis and respiration, for example

carbon 12 vs carbon 131
Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13

Most living things depend on carbon for their livelihood…

But do they use all carbon isotopes equally?

carbon 12 vs carbon 132
Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13
  • Living organisms can use 12C easier than 13C.
  • Remains of early organisms (fossil fuels, coal) tend to be rich in 12C while rocks are rich in 13C.

But do they use each isotope equally?

isotopes2
Isotopes

Some elements have stable isotopes. Some elements have only radioactive isotopes.

Can you tell from the periodic table?

slide88
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All radioactive!

No stable isotopes

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slide89
Watch out for the word “stable”.

Stable vs. radioactive

Stable vs. chemically reactive

isotopes3
Isotopes

3) Isotopes are naturally abundant in different concentrations

slide91
1H “hydrogen” 99.985%

2H deuterium0.015%

3H tritium trace amount

isotopes4
Isotopes

4) Behave almost IDENTICALLY in chemical reactions

chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

2 H2 + O2  2 H2O

2 D2 + O2  2 D2O

2 T2 + O2  2 T2O

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