CRM- Crew Resource Management. Rules of Engagement. Participation is Key Non-Attribution No Names – What Not Who. CRM – What is the Goal?. To achieve Optimal Performance from a team executing multiple, complex tasks. CRM – What is the Goal?.
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Participation is Key
No Names – What Not Who
To achieveOptimal Performance from a team executing multiple, complex tasks.
Does Optimal Performance Equate to Perfection?
To Error is HumanYou Can Not Engage In Human Activity Without Introducing Human Error
So, Can We Reach The Goal of CRM Without Eliminating Error?
Error Managementinto Every Aspect of CRM
GOAL: OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE
Systematic Approach to Determining Common Errors & Contributing Factors
Drives Cultural Change to Accept:Error is Universal. Error is Inevitable.Shifts Focus from Who to What
Teach aircrews toTRAP, MITIGATE & AVOID Error.
Errordoes not, has not, and will not cause an incident, an accident, or a fatality
So, what does?
ConsequenceConsequences are not universal or inevitable.Errors happen all of the time. Incidents, accidents, and fatalities do not.
EM targets the GAP between Error and Consequence!
Mitigating the Consequence of Error
Employ Error Trapping in Every Aspect of:Training Standardization CRM & ORMError Trapping = Prevention & Intervention
Latent & Active Errors
What was EM Outcome
Error Management must be imbedded in all four principles of CRM (SCAR)
…is the realistic understanding of all factors which affect the safety and effectiveness of your crew and aircraft.
Spatial Orientation/attitudeOrientation to traffic, geography & timeAircraft status & capabilitiesAircrew status & Crew-life cycleMission concept & Mission-life cycle
Loss of Situational Awareness Still the Leading Cause of Aircraft Mishaps(NASA/FAA: causal factor in 65-80% accidents)Rarely is it Instantaneous!
Why do we lose Situational Awareness?
Mode confusion/Automation ComplacencyStress/FatigueStimulus Fixation Decision Making/Task Management Inadequate Error Management/Trapping
Not Communicating Ambiguity
No one flying the aircraft Failure to meet targets
Deviating from Standards Not addressing discrep’s
Violating Minimums Preoccupation
What do you do when you suspect you have lostS.A.?
TWO CHALLENGE RULE
Elements of Communication SkillsThe most obvious of the CRM principles.And, the easiest to affect through training.“Say what you mean, mean what you say.”
Apply the A-B-C’s of communication
Accurate Bold Concise
Say what you mean, mean what you say.
But, “Have I been understood?”
Elements of Assertive Behavior
Authority with ParticipationAssertiveness with RespectThe genuine, complete & direct communication of ideas, wants & needs.
The genuine, complete & direct communication of ideas, wants & needs.
The Assertive Statement
Open-up; get their attentionState concern as “owned emotion”State the problem - real or perceivedOffer a solutionObtain agreement/closure
“Say what needs to be said”
RISK is a factor of:
1996 - multi-dimensional workshop
Developed common risk mgmt process
Specifically tailored to our size and multi-mission nature.
Identify Mission Tasks
7 Step Process
Eval Risk vs.. Gain
SPE RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL
The empowerment of all crewmembers to promote safety and increase overall aircrew performance.
Think Error Management
Execute CRM Skills