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Crew Resource Management. Presented by: Jim Kirby, ASI SLC FAA FSDO. Crew Resource Management:. “ The effective use of all available resources needed to complete a safe and efficient flight. ”. Objectives:. Human factors that cause accidents Critical success factors and elements

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crew resource management

Crew Resource Management

Presented by:

Jim Kirby, ASI


crew resource management1
Crew Resource Management:

“The effective use of all available resources needed to complete a safe and efficient flight.”

  • Human factors that cause accidents
  • Critical success factors and elements
  • Concepts and tools of aircrew coordination training (CRM/ACT)

We will explore:

goals of crm
Goals of CRM:

CRM should provide pilot with:

  • KNOWLEDGEof concepts and procedures
  • ATTITUDEwhich recognizes the importance of good aircrew coordination to safety.
  • SKILLSto effect implementation of knowledge
typical aircrew errors
Typical aircrew errors
  • Loss of situational awareness
  • Violation of FAR
  • Departure from proven procedures
  • Poor judgment or decision making
  • Preoccupation with minor mechanical problems

Typical aircrew errors

Inadequate leadership--Failing to:

  • Delegate tasks
  • Assign meaningful responsibilities
  • Set priorities
  • Lack of monitoring
  • Failure to use available information
  • Failure to communicate plans, problems, etc.
guiding principle
Guiding Principle:

“Everyone knows the regulations and procedures and will comply.”

(Fatal assumption?)

depart from p r
Depart from P&R?

Would YOU . . .

inadvertent departures
Inadvertent Departures
  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Attitude
  • Stress
purposeful departures from p r
Purposeful Departures from P&R . . .
  • Mind traps
  • Disregard for “silly” rules
  • Pressure
  • Unwise commands
positive flight crew characteristics
Positive Flight Crew Characteristics
  • In control of people and events or appear to be
  • Built-in calculated emotional distance
  • Mission oriented compartmentalizers
  • Systematic, methodical and predictable
negative flight crew characteristics
Negative Flight Crew Characteristics
  • Not spontaneous
  • Can and do become complacent as we get better
  • Do meaningless “rituals” - a trap
  • Need “positive feedback”
  • Excessive professional courtesy
  • Halo effect
  • Copilot syndrome
authority assertiveness

Crew Incapacitation:

  • Obvious
  • Subtle

“Two-Challenge Rule”

conflict resolution techniques constructive patterns
Conflict Resolution Techniques: Constructive Patterns
  • Program time to discuss issues
  • Give expression to feelings
  • Replay other person's feelings
  • Define issues clearly
  • Discover where positions agree
  • Discover points of vulnerability
  • Determine depth of feelings
  • Offer self corrections
  • Recognize spontaneous humor, caring
command authority
Command Authority

When there is disagreement:

“Conservative Response Rule”



  • Poor
  • Good
  • Effective
barriers anything that distorts or interferes with communications
Noise, static

Multiple communications

Fatigue, stress


Incomplete message

Ambiguous wording

Lack of credibility

Lack of rapport

Thing in personal terms



Barriers. Anything that distorts or interferes with communications:
was my message received
Was my message received?

Get feedback !

  • Deal with behavior, not person
  • Focus on ideas rather than giving advice
  • Focus on what is said rather than why
  • Include info that can be used, not everything you know
hidden agenda
Hidden Agenda:

Withholding information for personal reasons

  • Insures loss of communications
  • Hard to detect
  • Taints judgment

Be clear & concise

Consider the environment

Address receiver’s needs


Active listening




classifications of workload
Classifications of Workload:
  • CRITICAL:A workload item that requires immediate attention to avert catastrophe.
  • IMPORTANT: A workload item that requires response as soon as possible, else it will become critical.
  • ROUTINE:An item encountered in normal flight, but if left unattended could become important.
work load too high
Work load too high
  • Work faster, try to cram more into a shorter time frame.
  • Overall concept of flight breaks down. Overall view begins to narrow and become shorter
  • As pace quickens,attention become tunneled--pilot fixates on one item.
  • Revert to previous habits(good or bad)
recognizing high workload
Recognizing High Workload
  • Individual workloadtolerance varies
  • Difficulty adheringto normal performance standards
  • Errors, erratic performance
  • Getting away fromgood fundamentalsof aircraft control
  • Uncertainty, indecision, discomfort
  • Losing normal scan, tunnel vision, fixation
  • Temporal distortion
  • Hesitant, confused speech
protecting against high workload
Protecting against high workload
  • Intimate KNOWLEDGE of the business
  • Professional ATTITUDE
  • SKILL to fly without excessive attention to aircraft
dealing with distractions
Dealing with distractions
  • Ignore:Good during critical phases of flight. Planning can reduce distractions.
  • Delay:If it can wait, then delay it (judgment comes in here!)
  • Delegate: Let someone else handle the distraction if it warranted.
  • Handle:Handle important distraction right away, but do not become fixated at the expense of other important functions.
  • Sterile cockpit:Reduces or eliminates distractions
  • Can result in:
    • Distress
    • Anxiety
    • Oppression
    • Affliction
  • Body signals:
    • Headaches
    • Heartburn
    • Cramps
    • Fatigue


  • Cold/heat/light
  • Danger
  • Living conditions
  • INTRAPERSONAL conflict
  • Hereditary traits
  • Personality conflict
  • Mistrust
  • Lack of support
  • Poor communication
  • Family problems
  • Financial concerns
  • Health care
  • Pressure from friends
  • Time for personal interests
  • Role conflict
  • Job ambiguity
  • Underwork/overwork
  • changes
  • Travel
  • People management
  • Organizational structure
frequent causes for a failing aviator
Frequent Causes for a failing aviator
  • Recently engaged
  • Marital problems
  • Divorce
  • Relationship difficulties
  • Major career decision/change
  • Trouble with superiors or peers
managing stress
Managing stress
  • Organize yourself
  • Change your environment
  • Build up your strength
  • Listen to your body
  • Learn to relax
  • Find ways to laugh each day
  • Develop a supportive network around you

Available Resources:

People, equipment and information that can contribute to a successful flight and the prevention of error during the flight.

internal resources
Internal Resources:
  • Pilot
  • Copilot
  • Crew
  • Equipment knowledge
external resources
External Resources:
  • Other pilots via Pireps & communications
  • ATC
  • Tech reps & maintenance personnel
  • FSS
  • Time (think ahead, space out tasks)


The combined action of separate resources has greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects when they are assimilated by the flight crew.


The accurate perception of the factors affecting the aircraft and the crew, including knowing what has happened in the past, what’s going on now, and how these affect what might happen in the future.

Situational Awareness:

maintaining good situational awareness
Critical Success Factors:

Knowledge (plus experience/training)


Personal health

Crew coordination


Maintaining good situational awareness:
causes of loss of situational awareness


Unresolved disagreement or discrepancy



Gut feeling


Causes of loss of situational awareness:
minimizing loss of situational awareness
Minimizing loss of situational awareness
  • Illness?
  • Medication?
  • Stress?
  • Alcohol?
  • Fatigue?
  • Eating?
the i m safe checklist
The“I’M SAFE”checklist







decision making
Decision Making

A multitude of factors:

  • Knowledge
  • Training
  • Experience
  • Attitudes
hazardous attitudes
Hazardous Attitudes
  • Anti-authority
  • Impulsivity
  • Invulnerability
  • Macho
  • Resignation
  • Get There-itis
risk evaluation
Risk Evaluation








It’s break time!

Please be back in 10 minutes

operating strategy
Operating Strategy =

Aircrew Cycle







A specific technique for effecting good situational awareness, decision making and communications

standard cockpit operating procedure scop
Standard Cockpit Operating Procedure (SCOP)
  • Who flies
  • Who briefs what and when
  • Callouts: who makes them and when
  • Who does miscellaneous procedures
  • Checklist use (style and procedure)
briefings pic briefs sic
Briefings: PIC briefs SIC
  • Filed flight plan
  • Weather conditions
  • Itinerary, delays, stopovers, etc.
  • PIC/SIC, PF/PNF assignments
  • Question SIC about:
    • Fuel loaded
    • Preflight inspection
    • Load manifest, W&B
    • Answer questions
briefings before takeoff briefing
Briefings: Before takeoff briefing
  • Initial heading & altitude
  • Review critical “V” speeds
  • Advise of malfunctions & emergency action
  • Backup power settings
  • Standard Callouts
  • Any Questions?
briefings approach briefing
Briefings: Approach briefing
  • Name & location of IAP
  • Field elevation
  • Final approach crs. description
  • Name of final approach fix
  • DH/MDA timing
  • Missed approach procedure—at least first heading and altitude
  • Any questions?
  • Ensure proper configuration of aircraft
  • Basis for procedural standardization
  • A collection of task lists
normal checklist
Normal Checklist:
  • Verifies aircraft configuration
  • Provides sequential framework
  • Allows for cross-checking
  • Dictates crew duties
  • Enhances the team concept
  • Quality control tool
  • Reduces reliance on memory
  • Helps prevent exceeding aircraft limitations

I don’t use checklists because—

  • They take too much time . . .
  • I know my airplane so well . . .
  • They are too much work . . .
  • I fly a simple airplane . . .
checklist philosophy
Checklist philosophy

Methods of Use:

  • Call-do-response (“cookbook”)
  • Challenge-Verification-Response (checklist backs up flow patterns)
  • Memory Vs. Checklist
  • Inter-crew checking
  • Once isn’t enough!
checklist pitfalls
Checklist Pitfalls
  • Memory only - no checklist backups
  • Checklist pulled by habit, but not used
  • Checklist left entirely up to the PNF, w/o checking for action or response from PF (all talk-no action!)
  • ”Shortcutting”-Calling several items at once, failing to verify action for each
  • Failure to declare completion of checklist
performance factors
Performance factors
  • Perception
  • CRM
  • Interruptions and distractions
  • Maintenance
  • Checklist ambiguity
normal checklists cues
Normal ChecklistsCues
  • Preflight inspection
  • Before Starting Engines
  • Taxi
  • Before Takeoff
  • Lineup
  • After takeoff/climb
  • Cruise
  • Descent
  • In-range
  • Descent
  • Approach
  • Before Landing
  • After landing
  • Shutdown
checklist design

Subdivide long lists into usable chunks

  • Make a checklist for each phase of flight
    • Preflight
    • Before starting
    • Taxi
    • Before takeoff
    • Climb
    • Cruise
    • In range
    • Descent
    • Approach
    • Before landing
    • After landing
    • Shutdown
Checklist Design
order of items
Order of Items
  • System sequence
  • Motor/eye coordination Vs. checklist order
  • Flow patterns
  • Association: location & sequence
sequence of very critical items
Sequence of Very Critical Items
  • Locate at beginning of checklist—get attention before distractions . . .
  • Duplicate critical “killer” items for emphasis (use sparingly . . .)
design use guidelines
Design/Use Guidelines
  • Respond with item status
  • Touch the items
  • Subdivide long checklists
  • Sequence checklists to match flow patterns
  • Sequence checklists with other internal/external events
  • Critical items up front w/repetition
  • Call checklists completed
  • Build in backups
  • Awareness & training

Checklist discipline:

“There is nothing more worthless than sky above you, airspeed lost, runway behind you, fuel in the truck and checklists disregarded!”
standard callouts
Standard Callouts
  • An integral part of the SCOP
  • Help establish effective communications
  • Assist in situational awareness
  • A habit that increases the good effects of redundancy