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Icebreaker - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Icebreaker. The Genie You and your group have just uncovered a genie’s lamp, you rub it and surprise, a genie appears and states he will grant (3) wishes . . . but you all have to agree on these wishes . . . there is no dividing the wishes to be individual wishes.

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The Genie

  • You and your group have just uncovered a genie’s lamp, you rub it and surprise, a genie appears and states he will grant (3) wishes . . . but you all have to agree on these wishes . . . there is no dividing the wishes to be individual wishes.

  • Brainstorm a list of about ten wishes your group would like to make.

  • Narrow this list down to the three – provide reasons for these to be your final choices – share with the group.

Follow up questions
Follow-Up Questions

  • How did you come to a decision?

  • How did your group come to a decision?

  • Was your group’s method effective?

  • What factors affected your decision?

  • What attributes do you aspire to when working in groups?

Decision making methods
Decision Making Methods

  • Leader Decision Only

  • Expert member decision only

  • Decision determined by member’s average

  • Leader decision based on member input

  • A committee of 2 group members makes the decision

  • The majority vote is the choice of the group

  • Decision determined by consensus

  • Other??

What is consensus

  • The unified support of an idea by all members within the group.

  • Reaching consensus is important in deciding major issues that have a great effect on the group as a whole. The point of trying to reach consensus is to make a definite decision that all group members can support.

The d ecision m aking p rocess

The Decision Making Process



  • Steps that can be used to make decisions and solve problems

Problem solving vs decision making
Problem Solving vs. Decision Making

  • Problem Solving –

  • Seven Step Problem Solving Process

    • State Problem

    • Define Problem

    • Generate Solutions

    • Select Solutions

    • Develop Program

    • Implement Program

    • Evaluation

Blocks to creative problem solving
Blocks to Creative Problem Solving

  • Barriers in perception; badmouthing others’ ideas

  • Lack of self-confidence, information, energy, effort, humor, positive outlook

  • Old ways of doing things; overlooking the obvious

  • Conformity, clock pressure, close mindedness

  • Fear of being wronged or laughed at, self-complacency

Creative thinking
Creative Thinking

  • What are your suggestions for thinking creatively?

  • Outside of the box???????????

Step 1

  • Identifying the boundaries of the group:

    • What is the groups purpose? Why was it formed in the first place?

    • What resources are available to the group?

      • People

      • Money

      • Supplies

      • Knowledge

    • What LIMITS are there on the groups actions?

      • Laws, rules, school policies

      • Time

Step 2

  • Defining the problem or issue:

    • Briefly and clearly state the problem

      • The group cannot move forward without first understanding the problem at hand

    • Is there an underlying CAUSE of the problem?

      • You can only address and eliminate a problem by dealing with its CAUSE!

  • Remember to analyze the problem before you try to solve it!

Step 3

Developing Ideas:

  • Group Processes

    • Brainstorming

    • Nominal Group Processes

    • Idea Writing

  • Research Methods – Survey, Informational Files, Committee Work, Expert Panel Discussion, Published Materials, Experience, Qualified Expert, Suggestion Box

Step 3 continued
STEP 3 Continued…

  • Brainstorming – generate ideas quickly, anything goes, no discussion of ideas, the process continues until all ideas have been suggested

  • Nominal Group Process – written participation of all group members. The leaders solicits responses from the group, having each member give an idea and they are recorded

  • Idea Writing – After dividing the large group into smaller groups, each member writes an idea at the top of a piece of paper for a given problem. The papers are redistributed and the next person comments on the problem. When the sheets are full, they are collected and made available for everyone to discuss.

Practice nominal group process
Practice Nominal Group Process

  • 1-2 minutes to write ideas down on a sheet of paper

  • Each person share ideas with the class

  • Follow with an additional round of brainstorming

    • NOTE: No judgments, arguments, discussion, or debates

Step 4

  • Discussion and Debate:

    • State comments in a positive way

    • Keep in mind the limits and capabilities of the group

    • Make certain that alternatives are feasible. No idea is a dumb idea; however, not every idea is a viable choice

    • Remember the group’s goal

    • Be aware that the problem may have changed or adjusted through discussion

Step 4 continued
STEP 4 continued…

  • BUZZ Groups – By arranging members into smaller groups, you may increase opportunities for discussion and provide an environment for group members to participate who may be uncomfortable doing so in a large group setting.

  • Buzz groups are great for:

    • Converting goals into ideas for action

    • Evaluating a meeting or event

    • Nominating

    • Selecting activities

Discuss in groups
Discuss in Groups

  • Categorize ideas (4-5 categories)

  • Form BUZZGROUPS (4-5 people)

  • 8-10 min (may be adjusted) to discuss EACH idea in the groups

  • Narrow down ideas…how many?

  • Think WIN-WIN!

  • Avoid GROUP THINK!

Step 5

  • Decision and Implementation:

    • Consensus – groups of 30 or less

    • Majority Decision (vote)

    • Value Rating

  • What is consensus?

    • The unified support of an idea by all members within the group.

    • Reaching consensus is important in deciding major issues that have a great effect on the group as a whole. The point of trying to reach consensus is to make a definite decision that all group members can support.

Step 5 continued
STEP 5 Continued...

  • Things to remember:

    • An idea belongs to the group when it is presented, and it may be evaluated or critiqued by the group.

    • Consensus is worth the time and effort it involves

  • Tips to help with consensus:

    • Find areas of agreement

    • Phrase all commentspositively!

    • Keep discussion moving and stifle repetition

    • Encourage members to present their opinions logically and listen to reactions

    • Seek the opinions of those who have been silent during the process

    • Differences of opinion are natural and are to be expected

    • Call for a break if you feel there is a need for group members to talk informally

    • Deal with behavior that is counterproductive to the goal of consensus.

Step 5 continued1
STEP 5 Continued…

  • How do we narrow our list of ideas?

    • Keep/Scratch – With a list of ideas in full view of the group, the leader reads each idea and wait for a “keep” response from a group member. Each person is allowed to “keep” a given number of ideas on the list. If no one says “keep”, the idea is “scratched” or erased from the list. No one is allowed to say “scratch!” This method can be repeated as needed.

    • Value Rating – group members select the best ideas by distributing 100 points among those that they think are the best. To force choices, some restrictions can be placed on the distribution of points. For example, a member must put at least 35 points towards one idea, or each person may distribute their points among only five ideas. The ideas that are low in value may be discarded, and the method may be repeated.

      • Note: depending on how many options you have and the time you have to calculate, you may not want to use 100 points, rather a 5 point scale with at least 2 points given to one option.

Practice deciding
Practice deciding…

  • Conduct a round of KEEP/SCRATCH

  • Discuss and offer new opinions

  • Conduct another round of KEEP/SCRATCH

  • Continue until reaching decision

  • Conduct VALUE RATING if needed


  • NOTE: Here is where you could stop, go back and begin the DMP again based on the problem you have selected.

    • Coming to consensus on the groups goal/problem is THE most important activity you can conduct.

  • Have you ever been a part of a group or worked on a project that you were not passionate about? Or downright didn’t care about at all?

    • A goal that the entire group is passionate about, or at least cares about, can make or break the success of the group.

  • Now, let’s say you decide to tackle this problem at your school next year and you use the DMP to come up with an idea for a project. The next 2 steps are incredibly important to the process, so pay attention…

We made the decision now what
We made the decision now what?

GET: Project Approval

THEN: Refer specific tasks to


THEN: Delegate responsibilities

THEN: Accomplish special tasks

ALSO: Meet deadlines

FINALLY: Perform tasks/carry out project

Step 6

  • Evaluation

  • Evaluation is a necessary and important step in the process but is often overlooked. More than one of the following methods should be used to evaluate:

    • Group/Committee Discussion

    • Written Report

    • Suggestion Box

    • Hit or Wish Board

    • Surveys/Questionnaires

Who should evaluate?


What went well what could be improved
What went well? What could be improved?

Step 7

  • Housekeeping

  • Encompasses the wrap-up of the project including the following:

    • Cleaning up any areas and spaces used during the project

    • Returning borrowed supplies/equipment

    • Filing reports (project approval plans, disks, evaluations, etc)

    • Checking funds and paying bills

    • Writing thank you notes

    • Celebrating the success of the project

Beware of group think
Beware of Group Think

  • Group-think occurs when members sacrifice their opinions and feelings to make peace and allow the group to make a decision faster.

  • They are, in effect, making compromises for the wrong reasons; this undermines the ability to take advantage of individuals’ diversity.

  • A group leader must be careful to avoid group-think, especially in a consensus-seeking situation.

Reaching group decisions there s more
Reaching Group Decisions…there’s more

  • Priority Ranking

  • Fist to Five

  • Majority Voting

  • Chance Strategies