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Student Projects for B.Sc. Chemistry . Dr. R. Rajeev VSSC, Thiruvananthapuram. Project. Feasibility. Introduction Relevance Applications Literature survey Scope of work Experimental Procedure Materials

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student projects for b sc chemistry
Student Projects for B.Sc. Chemistry

Dr. R. Rajeev

VSSC, Thiruvananthapuram

project
Project

Feasibility

  • Introduction

Relevance

Applications

Literature survey

  • Scope of work
  • Experimental Procedure
  • Materials
  • Instrumentation for experiments and characterization
  • Results & Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
where to find a topic subject
Where to find a topic / subject
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Synthesis of metal oxides

  • Applications

metallurgy, catalysts, fillers in composites, ceramics, pigments, paints

  • Properties

Inertness, catalytic activity, stability, purity, colour

Thermal , electrical , magnetic and spectral properties

Particle characteristics like size (macro, micro, nano), shape, surface area, porosity

  • Properties varies with method of preparation, heat treatment, precursor
iron oxide
Iron oxide
  • Oxides of Iron
  • iron(II) oxide, wüstite (FeO)
  • iron(II,III) oxide, magnetite (Fe3O4)
  • iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3)
    • alpha phase, hematite (α-Fe2O3) beta phase, (β-Fe2O3)
    • gamma phase, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)
    • epsilon phase, (ε-Fe2O3)
  • Hydroxides
  • iron(II) hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)
  • iron(III) hydroxide (Fe(OH)3), (bernalite)
  • Oxide/hydroxides
  • goethite (α-FeOOH),
  • akaganéite (β-FeOOH),
  • lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH),
  • feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH),
  • ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8·4H2O approx.), or 5Fe2O3•9H2O, better recast as FeOOH•0.4H2O
  • high-pressure FeOOH
  • schwertmannite (ideally Fe8O8(OH)6(SO)·nH2O or Fe3+16O16(OH,SO4)12-13·10-12H2O)
  • green rust (FeIIIxFeIIy(OH)3x+2y-z(A-)z; where A- is Cl- or 0.5SO42-)
synthesis
Synthesis
  • Precipitation of from an aqueous solution of iron compound
  • Precipitating agent,, ammonia, NaOH, KOH, amines
  • Temperature- RT, Hydrothermal, autoclave, microwave
  • Homogeneous precipitation- urea, hexamine
  • Thermal decomposition of Iron compounds
  • Iron salts – inorganic / organic
  • Nitrate, carbonate, sulphate, perchlorate / oxalate, citrate, tartrate
  • Iron complexes-
  • Atmosphere - oxidizing, reducing, inert
synthesis of nano iron oxide particles
Synthesis of Nano Iron oxide particles
  • Combustion technique
  • Vapour deposition
  • Sol-Gel method
  • Template method
  • Homogeneous precipitation
  • Powdering- ball milling, Fluid energy milling
characterization techniques
Characterization techniques

Elemental analysis

  • CHNS Analyser
  • UV-Visible Spectrophotometry
  • Ion Chromatography (IC)
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICPAES)
  • X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF)

Structural Analysis

  • Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectrometry (FTIR)
  • X-ray Diffraction Spectrometry (XRD)

Particle Characterization

  • Surface area analyser
  • Particle Size analysis by light scattering
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

Thermal Analysis

  • Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA)
  • Differential Thermal Analyser (DTA)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)
slide8

X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD)

  • Nanoferric oxide by sucrose method
slide11

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS)

Specifications

Source : hollow cathode lamp

Flame : air/C2H2, N2O/C2H2

Range : 0.1 ppm to 5%

Detector : PM tube

Sensitivity : 0.01 ppm

Sample : aqueous/ non aqueous solutions

  • Principle is Beer-Lambert’s law: log I0/I = εcl
  • Measurement of radiation, absorbed by the ground state atoms at specific resonance wavelength, from a hollow cathode lamp
  • Extent of absorption is directly proportional to the number of ground state atoms in the flame, measured by a spectrophotometer
ion chromatograph

Ion Chromatograph

Principle

Ion exchange , retention and elution

Applications

Anions and cations from ppm to percentage levels

slide13

Thermogravimetric Analyser (TG) and

Differential Thermal Analyser (DTA)

Components

Balance assemblies

Furnace

Cabinet

Software

Temperature Range: Ambient to 1500°C

Heating Rate : 0.1°C/min to100°C/min

Accuracy :  1%

Balance sensitivity : 0.1g

DTA sensitivity : 0. 001°C

slide17

Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)

Temperature Range: -150°C to 725°C

Heating Rate : 0.1°C/min to 100°C/min

Calorimetric Precision : 1 %

slide20

UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

Principle

Beer-Lambert law

A = log I0/I = εcL

  • UV -Visible spectroscopy involves the absorption of UV or visible light by a molecule causing the promotion of an electron from a ground electronic state to an excited electronic state
  • Applications
  • Estimation of trace level impurities in alloys
  • Estimation of titanium, Iridium in alloys and catalysts
  • Absorption studies of Quantum dots, dyes
  • Fe in Al powder
  • Ammonium dinitramide analysis

Specifications

Range : 190-900nm

Resolution : 1 nm

analysis of titanium by uv visible spectrophotometer

Calibration graph for Titanium

0.35

0.30

slope 0.01591

0.25

Absorbance

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0

5

10

15

20

Concentration of Titanium (mg/L)

Analysis of Titanium by UV-visible Spectrophotometer
  • In acid medium Titanium ions give an yellow orange complex with H2O2 which forms the basis of spectrometric method for determination of Titanium.
  • The interference from other elements can be eliminated by the addition of citric acid / tartaric acid

UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

max = 410nm, Band width = 0.5nm

Quartz cell with optical path length 10mm

fourier transform infra red spectrometer
Fourier Transform Infra red Spectrometer

Wavelength range : 400 - 4000 cm-1 Sa Samples in KBr pellets used for measuring spectrum

topics for projects
Topics for Projects

Studies on water crystallization of compounds

Sulphate, Double sulphates, alums

Nitrates, chlorides, complexes

Preparation of crystals

TG, DTA studies, XRD, IR

Catalytic activity studies

Ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate,

potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate

Catalysts:Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides

Preparation and characterization

TG, DTA, DSC, particle size, surface area, XRD, IR, SEM, TEM

topics for projects1

Topics for Projects

Pollution control studies

Removal of major contaminants

acid, base, sulphate, nitrate, perchlorate, fluoride, iron, etc

Addition of suitable neutralizing /precipitating agents, separation

analysis

Removal of minor and trace contaminants

-As, Hg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Fluoride, perchlorate, etc

-Adsorption, Ion exchange, chromatography, solvent extraction, precipitation, evaporation, volatilization

Regeneration, analysis

Type of additives / by products

Natural, synthetic reagents, corrosive, ecofriendly

topics for projects2
Topics for Projects

Analytical Chemistry Projects

  • Estimation of iron content in soil from different area by spectrophotometry
  • Analysis of Titanium content in beach sand by spectrophotometry
  • Quantitative composition analysis of alloys eg. Chromium / Nickel content in Stainless steel

(gravimetry, volumetry, colorimetry, AAS, ICP-AES)

advanced projects

Advanced Projects

Mars atmosphere contains >95% CO2

and also as dry ice in soil

Technologies are required for producing oxygen from this CO2 and from iron oxide

Splitting of water to hydrogen and oxygen by low cost / energy method

Storage of hydrogen