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The Impact of the New SI on Industry

The Impact of the New SI on Industry

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The Impact of the New SI on Industry

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  1. The Impact of the New SI on Industry Jeff Gust Chief Corporate Metrologist Fluke Corporation

  2. Learning Objectives • Information on the SI redefinition • Approximate timeframe for redefinition • Will redefinition will potentially affect your organization • The role of industry in educational activities associated with the redefinition • How measurements associated with the redefinition will be disseminated to industry

  3. Introduction • In October of 2011, the CGPM may meet to consider a proposal to address the definition of the kilogram • Last of the seven base units defined in terms of a material artifact • Unchanged since 1889 • ampere, mole and candela all defined in terms of the kilogram

  4. Draft proposal of SI revision • The ground state hyperfine splitting frequency of the caesium 133 atom Δυ(133Cs)hfs is exactly 9 192 631 770 hertz • The speed of light in vacuum c is exactly 299 792 458 metre per second • The Planck constant h is exactly 6.626 06X ×10-34 joule second • The elementary charge e is exactly 1.602 17X ×10-19 coulomb • The Boltzmann constant k is exactly 1.380 6X ×10-23 joule per kelvin • The Avogadro constant NA is exactly 6.022 14X ×1023 reciprocal mole • The luminous efficacy Kcd of monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 ×1012 Hz is exactly 683 Lumen per watt • The values for x are to be added on the most recent CODATA adjustments

  5. Draft proposal of SI revision • The SI will continue to have the seven base units • The kilogram would be defined in terms of the Planck constant • The ampere will be defined by the elementary charge • The kelvin will be defined by the Boltzmann constant • The mole will be defined in terms of the Avogadro constant

  6. Questions from industry • When will this happen? • How much will it affect the reference values of my standards, their associated uncertainty, and any measurement processes? • Who is going to help explain what these changes are, and why they are occurring, to my company and to my customers? • How will the change in the SI get disseminated to my organization?

  7. When is this going to happen? • Probably not very soon • The conditions of the 23rd meeting of the CGPM in 2007 would have to be met • Independent experiments for Planck’s constant need sufficient level of agreement in the watt balance results • One excellent experimental result for the Boltzmann constant has been performed, a second independent experiment needs to confirm • CGPM meets once every four years, 2011, 2015

  8. How much will it affect the reference values of my standards? • In order to realize the proposed definitions it will be necessary to develop mises en pratique • Example: Ampere is realized through Ohm’s law through the Josephson and Quantum Hall effects • Because of the redefinition of h and e, and the Josephson constant is based on the ratio 2e/h, the Josephson constant will also change • The effect is approximately 19 x 10-9 • Only seen by labs using JVS in Interlaboratory Comparisons • Same for Von Klitzing constant, based on h/e2 • The effect is approximately 22 x 10-9 • Only seen by organizations that send their best resistors to NMI’s • The effect for Mass not known yet, anticipated to be a few parts in 108 • Only seen at best NMI to industry interactions

  9. How much will it affect the reference values of my standards? • The mole moves from the kilogram to Avogadro constant • Not anticipated to change by more than few parts in 109 • The Candela is defined in W/sr, tied to kilogram, same shift as for kilogram applies • Kelvin moves from Triple Point of Water (TPW) to Boltzmann constant • Once definition changes, TPW becomes a quantity to be determined experimentally • Boltzmann constant has 1 x 10-6 uncertainty, which is approximately 0.25 mK • Most industry and NMI uncertainty for TPW is less than 0.1 mK • No present solution, but possibly can be added as a covariant term that drops out

  10. Who is going to help explain what these changes are? • It would be beneficial if the CIPM and NMI’s partner with industry to develop educational materials at appropriate levels of complexity • Two potential candidates from industry would be NCSLI and Fluke • Fluke played a critical role in the latest Boltzmann project to determine the constant by dielectric constant gas thermometry

  11. Who is going to help explain what these changes are? • Fluke has a history of addressing these type of issues • 1990 volt shifted 9.264 x 10-6 and ohm shifted 1.69 x 10-6 • Volt shift was approximately 100% of the 1 year specification of the Fluke 5700A • Fluke Application note was developed to communicate the change

  12. Who is going to help explain what these changes are? • One possible method of outreach is through social media

  13. Who is going to help explain what these changes are? • NCSLI could be a major contributor in education and outreach on the subject • In 1989, NCSL formed Technical Advisory Group 91.4.1 to address the 1990 Volt and ohm changes • Membership from various sections of NCSL • The committee developed a document on practical guidance for implementation of the changes, and sent speakers out around the U.S. NCSL meetings to provide a forum for Q and A

  14. How will the change in the SI get disseminated to my organization? • Needs to be a planned activity • Educational activities should help organizations identify if they are affected • Dissemination activities could be classified as: • Organizations that perform calibration services whose reference value and uncertainty are affected by redefinition (Traceability Provider) • Organizations that own and utilize devices whose reference values and uncertainty would be affected by redefinition (Traceability User) • Users need to coordinate with Providers • Providers may be able to start providing redefined calibrations before the effective date • Reports would clearly need to indicate which definition was used

  15. How will the change in the SI get disseminated to my organization? • Example – the SI 1990 logo was developed by NCSL for use on equipment and reports performed under the new definition

  16. Conclusion • Redefinition is probably not imminent • As we progress towards redefinition, it will be important to consider the repercussions of new definitions and mises en pratique • Plans must be developed and executed in order to educate and disseminate knowledge