The Impact of the New Deal The New Deal had an enormous impact on the United States, greatly increasing the role of the federal government in the lives of ordinary citizens.
Women Gain Political Recognition • Eleanor Roosevelt used her position as First Lady to publicly support women through such activities as her women-only press conferences. She also worked behind the scenes to pressure FDR to expandtheroleofwomeningovernment.
Section 3-5 Women Gain Political Recognition (cont.) • In all, more than 100 women held senior positions in the federal government during FDR’s administration. They included Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, the first woman to hold a cabinet post.
Section 3-6 Women Gain Political Recognition (cont.) • Despite gains, women still generally faced discrimination. Although Roosevelt supported women’s rights, he tended to appoint women to government posts where they would be least likely to conflict with men. Therefore, women in government lacked the clout to offset the lower wages and unfair hiring practices endured by women–some of which were enshrined in NRA codes.
African Americans Gain a Voice • Although most African Americans in the Roosevelt administration were appointed to secondary posts, they nevertheless exerted influence collectively as the black cabinet. The group of about 50 African American appointees included Mary McLeod Bethune, head of the Negro Affairs Division of the National Youth Administration.
African Americans Gain a Voice (cont.) • Under Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA allocated funds for the construction of African American hospitals, universities, and housing projects. PWA building contracts also contained a clause requiring the number of African Americans hired be at least equal in proportion to their number in the local population–a practice that becamethe basis for later civil rights legislation.
African Americans Gain a Voice (cont.) • Fearing a white backlash, Roosevelt sidestepped a number of racial issues. He did little to eliminate discrimination in the work place. He also failed to push for a federal anti-lynching law and left poll taxes in place throughout the South.
Native Americans Gain an Ally • The most significant New Deal program to aid Native Americans was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which helped promote Native American cultures and preserve tribal ownership of reservation lands.
Native Americans Gain an Ally (cont.) • With the Indian Reorganization Act, Native Americans gained control of their reservations and could decide how their lands would be used and managed. The act also encouraged Native Americans to establish their own governments on reservations, which could then apply for funds from the Indian Bureau.
An Expanded Government Role • By including the excluded–women, African Americans, Native Americans, farmers, common laborers, the poor–the New Deal brought government closer to all the people. • During the Roosevelt administration, 14 percent of all families obtained aid or relief from the federal government.
An Expanded Government Role (cont.) • Federal regulation, or the expansion of the federal government into almost all aspects of people’s lives, was a direct legacy of the New Deal. Under the New Deal, the federal government assumed responsibility for the economic welfare of individuals as well as for the health of the nation’s economy at large. • The government relied upon the Commerce Clause and the General Welfare Clause as the Constitutional justification
An Expanded Government Role (cont.) • Although the New Deal generally increased people’s confidence in the nation’s political and economic systems, it neither eliminated individual poverty nor ended the Depression. Complete recovery did not come until World War II was well under way.
National Housing Act • The National Housing Act was passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. It was passed in 1934. It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. • These programs loaned money to people (or gave money to banks so they could loan it to people) so they could buy homes • Some unintended consequences were that it did little to improve inner city housing, it intensified segregation of races, and further promoted the single family detached dwelling as the prevailing mode of housing, which furthered the phenomenon of suburban sprawl.
Fair Labor Standards Act • The Fair Labor Standards Act, also called the Wages and Hours Bill, is United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. • The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term defined in the statute. • This act was passed in 1938.