chapter 1 recognize that reality is all in your head
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Chapter 1: Recognize That Reality is All in Your Head

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Chapter 1: Recognize That Reality is All in Your Head. Dr. M. Davis-Brantley. Can you read this?.

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can you read this
Can you read this?
  • fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid tooCna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!
we see what we think is there
We see what we think is there
  • We see what we want to see
  • Believing is Seeing
  • Sensation vs. Perception
    • Sensation is the physical process of receiving external stimuli which connects with our sensory organs
    • Perception occurs when our bra in interprets these signals and ascribes meaning to them
    • Ex: Everyone draw me a pie
  • Perception vs. Reality or Perception is Reality
  • How does our perception formulate our paradigm?
paradigms and frames of reference
Paradigms and Frames of Reference
  • Paradigm is how you view any event or situation in life and is based on your expectations, your beliefs, your pre-conceived notions
  • Book refers to them as frames of reference which is how we organize and understand our world, our perceptions, our experiences
    • Ex: Two figures outside your door wearing masks, what do you do?
    • How do our paradigms make up your reality?
    • Ex: If we see the world through yellow or blue lenses how do we see the world?
  • Fact vs. Opinion
objectivism vs constructivism
Objectivism vs. Constructivism
  • So what is reality? Two different sides of reality:
  • Objectivism vs. Constructivism
  • Objectivism assumes that there is a separate reality independent from the observer of that reality
    • Ex: A chair exist in the world regardless of whether or not you exist or whether or not you see it
  • Constructivism assumes that there is no separate reality
    • Ex: The chair exists but can exist differently when you are not looking at it
    • These individuals value usefulness over truth and view truth as relative, constantly changing, depending on the frame of reference of the observer
      • If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, does the sound still exist?
      • Ex: Eyewitness of accounts of strangers who viewed a crime scene or a car accident typically vary considerably.
      • Criminals exonerated due to new DNA evidence but were convicted on eyewitness testimony
      • Memory Distortion is the possibility that you memories are not nearly as accurate as you assume, and may contain numerous inaccuracies and/or omissions
eyewitness account
Eyewitness Account
  • United Kingdom does not permit eyewitness account in court because of the lack of research regarding the validity
    • Several factors determine whether the eyewitness identification has an independent basis assuring its reliability. People v Kachar, 400 Mich 78 (1977). These factors are:
    • the witness's prior relationship with the accused;
    • the witness's opportunity to observe the offender and the offense;
    • the length of time between the offense and the identification;
    • the accuracy of the witness's description of the offender prior to the identification procedure in light of the defendant's actual appearance;
    • any prior identification or failure to identify the defendant;
    • any identification of a person other than the defendant as the culprit prior to the suggestive procedure;
    • the nature of the offense and characteristics of the witness;
    • idiosyncratic features of the defendant.
paradigm shifts
Paradigm Shifts
  • Paradigm Shift is a change in the overriding theoretical framework that governs a scientific discipline
  • Almost every significant breakthrough in the field of science began with a break with tradition, a break with old ways of thinking, a shift or change from old paradigms
    • Ex: 2nd century A.D. Ptolemy asserted that the earth was the center of the universe (geocentric view)
    • In the early 1500’s scientists began saying otherwise (heliocentric view) and these individuals were condemned (because it this view contradicted with that of the church) until Galileo was able to prove it in the 1600’s
    • Ex: Field of medicine was revolutionized by the germ theory
    • Ex: Field of psychology from early accepted psychodynamic theory onto today’s perspective
    • What are some current paradigm shifts?
paradigm shifts in everyday life
Paradigm Shifts in Everyday Life
  • “The important thing is not to stop questioning”—Albert Einstein
  • Prior to every paradigm shift in the past there was significant resistance to the shift
    • Galileo was imprisoned and threatened with death and asked to recant his ideas before he was released
  • Does the same thing happen with our own personal paradigms? Yes!
  • One reason for such resistance is that we continue to look to support our frame of reference or paradigm (Hypothesis Testing)
  • Hypothesis Testing=Selective Perception which is the tendency to perceive that which we expect to be there
    • Information outside of our paradigm we tend to ignore
    • Ex: How information is presented to us in the media
  • Ex: The movie the Sixth Sense and holding the perspective that the main character is alive
  • How does this contribute to your effectiveness as an individual? As Einstein said “the significant problems we face today can not be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them”
  • In order to contribute us being better people and your personal effectiveness, it is important to experience a paradigm shift or reframe
    • “The way we see the problem is the problem”
  • Functional Fixedness
  • Is it important to build the skills that help you to change the way you think?
  • Ex: From the book the Chinese farmer whose luck was viewed as bad but not seen that way by the farmer
  • Ambiguous Figures help us to see how fixed we are on seeing things one way, once you see it a certain way it is difficult to shift back