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Blood

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  1. Blood

  2. Composition of Blood Blood is composed of two main elements 1. Plasma – liquid portion • 55% 2. Formed elements – various blood cells • 45%

  3. Blood Volume • About 8% of total body weight in averaged sized adults • 4-5 liters in a female and 5-6 liters in a male • Direct measurement and indirect measurement

  4. Red Blood Cells (RBCs) = erythrocytes White blood Cells (WBCs) = leukocytes Platelets = thrombocytes Formed Elements of Blood

  5. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Volume % of red blood cells in whole blood Anemias – decreased red blood cells Physiological polycythemia – increased red blood cells Hematocrit

  6. No nucleus 7.5 μm in diameter Biconcave disk (increases surface area) Doesn’t contain ribosomes, mitochondria or other organelles Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes

  7. 200 – 300 million molecules per cell Composed of four protein chains and a red pigment called a heme Each heme has an iron molecule that allows it to bond to four oxygen molecules Hemoglobin

  8. Formation of Red Blood Cells • In adults, erythrocytes begin maturation in the red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as hematopoietic stem cells • Divide by mitosis • Entire maturation process takes about 4 days • 200 Billion RBCs per day

  9. Erythropoiesis

  10. Destruction of Red Blood Cells • Average life span of 105 – 120 days • Often break apart as they age and are destroyed by macrophages—mostly in the liver and spleen (phagocytosis) • Iron returned to marrow • Bilirubin excreted as bile • Amino acids released a globin for new proteins

  11. Destruction of Red Blood Cells

  12. White Blood Cells • 5 Types of White Blood Cells • Granulocytes • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Monocytes

  13. Neutrophils • Small cytoplasmic granules stain light purple and give the cytoplasm a coarse appearance. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes – nuclei have multiple lobes • Highly mobile and phagocytic • Migrate out of blood vessels

  14. Large, numerous cytoplasmic granules that stain orange Nuclei with two lobes Involved in allergic reactions Weak phagocytes Eosinophils

  15. Large but sparse cytoplasmic granules Least numerous of WBCs Motile Contain histamine and heparin Basophils

  16. Smallest WBCs Large spherical nuclei T Lymphocytes – directly attack infected or cancerous cells B Lymphocytes – produce antibodies Lymphocytes

  17. Largest WBC Dark, kidney bean shaped nuclei Motile and highly phagocytic (engulf bacteria and viral infected cells) Monocytes

  18. Platelets • Small and nearly colorless • Irregular spindles or oval disks • Function in blood clotting