the digital library as hypertext n.
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Riccardo Ridi - Università Ca’ Foscari , Venezia 31. ADLUG annual meeting Firenze - 21 Settembre 2012. THE (DIGITAL) LIBRARY AS HYPERTEXT. abstract.

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1) hypertext = document

2) library = hypertext

3) 5lawsof the hypertextuallibrary

4) 25 thesesabout (hypertextual) libraries

the 5 components of hypertextuality
the 5 components of hypertextuality

1) multilinearity

2) granularity

3) integrability

4) interactivity

5) multimediality

2 granularity
2: granularity
  • granularity is the characteristic of the documents that can be decomposed in smaller parts, which still have a sense and which can be used independently
3 integrability
3: integrability
  • integrability is the characteristic according to which, following the links of a hypertext, one can arrive anywhere, proceeding to the infinite
4 interactivity
4: interactivity
  • interactivity is the possibility, for the reader, of intervening creatively in the document, adding material (that is nodes) or drawing new paths (that is links)
5 multimediality
5: multimediality
  • multimediality can be a characteristic only of nodes (texts, images, sounds…) or also of the structure of the links (schemes, diagrams…)
  • in this second case, some prefer to use the term "hypermediality”
not only texts can be hypertexts
notonlytexts can behypertexts
  • internal cross-references in encyclopaedias
  • citations and bibliographic

references in academic papers

  • indexes and tables of contents

in printed books

  • catalogues and bibliographies
libraries deal with
libraries deal with...
  • selecting
  • acquiring
  • organizing
  • indexing
  • managing
  • preserving
  • valorising
  • making enjoying…….. documents
libraries are
  • big and articulatedcollectionsofdocuments
  • enrichedwithservices
  • mega/meta/macro-documents
1 libraries are granular
1: libraries are granular…

…because they contain different typologies of autonomous documents: books, journals, databases, CDs and DVDs, bibliographies, catalogues, directories…

2 libraries are multilinear
2: libraries are multilinear…

…because it is possible to move among these documents following a plurality of paths, some of which are recommended by bibliographers and librarians and others are created autonomously by users

3a libraries are multimedia
3a: libraries are multimedia…

…because their documents

belong to different media

3b libraries are hypermedia
3b: libraries are hypermedia…

…because a part of the tools for browsing, orientation and finding used in libraries is based on spatiality and on iconic interfaces

4 libraries are integrable
4: libraries are integrable…

…because they are involved in a process of continuous expansion and replacement,

both on the document and the users front

5 libraries are interactive
5: libraries are interactive…

…because their tools for browsing, orientation and finding (and the retrieved documents themselves) are customizable

libraries are hypertextual because they are
libraries are hypertextualbecausetheyare…

1) granular

2) multilinear

3a) multimedia

3b) hypermedia

4) integrable

5) interactive

digital libraries are more hypertextual because
digitallibraries are more hypertextualbecause…
  • primary digital documents are often more hypertextual than traditional ones
  • digital directories and indexes are almost always more hypertextual than traditional ones
libraries are hypertexts
libraries are hypertexts…
  • from the descriptivepointofview
  • from the normativepointofview
library as network whose
libraryas network whose…
  • nodes= documents and people

(users, staff, suppliers, stakeholders)

  • links = services
ranganathan s 5 laws 1931
Ranganathan’s5laws (1931):
  • Books are for use
  • Every reader his book
  • Every book its reader
  • Save the time of the reader
  • Library is a growing organism

S. R. Ranganathan, The fivelawsoflibrarysciences,

Madras LibraryAssociation, 1931

the 5 laws of the hypertextual library 2007
The 5lawsof the hypertextuallibrary (2007):
  • Nodes are forreading, passingthrough and writing
  • Everyuserhis/herpath
  • Everypathitsuser
  • Create more directlinks
  • The libraryis a growinghypertext

Riccardo Ridi, La biblioteca come ipertesto,

Editrice Bibliografica, 2007

1 nodes are for reading passing through and writing
1) Nodes are forreading, passingthrough and writing
  • Everydocumentthatactsas a node in a hypertext - as a document - isbornwith the aimofbeingusedby at leastonepersonwhodecodesitscontent.
  • Moreover, as a nodeof a hypertext, itisalso the placewhere the reader can choose a pathtowardsothernodes.
  • In completelyhypertextualnetworks the user'sfreedomisnotlimitedto the choiceofpath and the possibilitytoread or not, but the readerbecomes a writer in the complete sense, modifyingnotonly the pathsbutalso the nodes.
2 every user his her path
2) Everyuserhis/herpath
  • Freedomofchoiceofpaths
  • Full accessibilityof the single nodes
  • Pluralityoflinks
  • Appropriateness and efficiencyof the systemsoforientation, navigation, and retrieval
  • Sagacityof the user
  • Referenceservicesofferedby the library
3 every path its user
3) Everypathitsuser

The librarianmustnotactivateall the links and the logicallypossiblepaths, butonlythoseforwhichit can beassumedthatitwillexist at leastoneuserwhowill include itsensibly in anindividualpathofhis/herown

4 create more direct links
4) Create more directlinks

In the creationoflinks and in the management ofsystemsoforientation, navigation, and retrieval, the librarianwillmake the more rational, economic, and usefulchoicesforusers

5 the library is a growing hypertext
5) The libraryis a growinghypertext

Everylibraryofferstoitsusers a hypertextual network ofaccess and circulationamongdocumentspossessed or accessible, and ofconnectedserviceswhich can do nothingbuttendtoexpandindefinitely - alsocooperatingwithotherlibraries and agencies

25 theses about hypertextual libraries
25 thesesabout (hypertextual) libraries

Riccardo Ridi, HypertextualLibrary Manifesto - Version 1.0, "Libraryphilosophy

and practice", XI (2008), n. 1 <>.

1. Libraries are hypertexts

2. Librariesmanagecollectionsofdocuments

3. Libraries' collections are selectivebuthospitable

4. Librariesprovidedocument and information servicestousers

5. Librariesexisttoallowuserstodetermine the existenceofrelevantdocuments

and usetheircontents

6. Libraries are a means, notan end

7. Integrally-analoglibraries, integrally-digitallibraries,

and hybridlibraries are alllibraries

8. Librariessupportinteroperability and standards

9. Libraries cooperate

25 theses about hypertextual libraries1
25 thesesabout (hypertextual) libraries

10. Librariesadopt the Net as a model,

bothorganizational and technological

11. Librariesrespect the rightsofbothproducers and usersofdocuments

12. Individuallibrarieshavedifferentiatedcommunitiesofreferenceusers

13. Librariespersonalizetheirservices

14. Libraries are accessible

15. Librariesmakethemselvesknown

16. Librariesevaluate, assess, and improvetheircollections and services

17. Libraries are expensive, buttheyalsohave positive economiceffects

18. Librariesfollowflexiblemodels

25 theses about hypertextual libraries2
25 thesesabout (hypertextual) libraries

19. Librarycollections and services can beheterogeneous, butthey are integrated and madehomogeneousby the samelibraries

20. Furtherlevelsofintegration and homogenization can bedeveloped at a territorial, disciplinary, or institutionallevel

21. Librariesneedlibrarians

22. The universe and the docuverse coincide, butonly in onefacet

23. Every text is a hypertext

24. Digitallibrarieswill put themselves at the centreof a scientificdocumenttriangleconsistingof open archives, e-journals, and digitalbibliographies

25. Iftherewereenoughresources, librariescoulddeliverservicesrelatednotonlytoreadingbutalsotowriting

riccardo ridi the digital library as hypertext firenze 21 settembre 2012
Riccardo Ridi - The (digital) libraryashypertext Firenze - 21 Settembre 2012